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Flashcards in An Overview of the Human Resource Management Field Deck (21):

Human Resources Management (HRM) can be described as all the activities at the disposal of an organization that can be utilized to affect the ________ of the people who work for the organization.


The behavior of the companys workers impact on the companys profitability, customer satisfaction and organizational productivity. Hence, activities of the HRM would hopefully affect the workers behavior in a positive manner.


Before the 1960s, the practice of Human Resources (HR) was mainly concerned with employee record maintenance; whereas in the 1960s to 1980s the system was altered to satisfy ___________ and court rulings on matters such as equal opportunity and environmental protection.


The role of HRM in the 1960s was on keeping their work records up to date, training employees, orientating new employees and screening applicants.


In the 1980s, the HRM role had morphed into handling organizational accountability such as seeking out the competitive advantage, using resources wisely and controlling costs, but from the 1990s the emphasis had shifted again to concentrate on _________ partnerships.


Strategic partnerships means aligning HRM to meet the needs of the companys stakeholders employees, shareholders, customers, society and any other group with a right, ownership or interest in the company.


HRM is critical in any organization because it concerns the creation of a skilled and motivated workforce in the light of economic, _____________, social and legal issues that may restrain or assist in the attainment of organizational goals.



HRM activities concern the formulation of formal organizational policies and daily informal practices covering areas such as recruitment, retention of workers, job analysis, training, employee compensation and promoting workplace ______.


The organization and integration of the various formal and informal activities create the HRM system. Many activities are usually best described through actual written policies in order to create clear guidelines for all workers.


Most companies would normally partner line managers with __ specialists in order to foster and utilize the talents of their workers.


The line manager should be in close contact with his or her team of workers. Therefore, a partnership of the line manager with the HR specialist should produce a combination of HR knowledge with internal team dynamics for best results.


The role of the HR Manager is to advise and counsel management, service activities such as recruitment and training programs, create and implement policies as well as champion employee _____.


Traditionally, the HR Manager would listen to the needs and concerns of the employees and relate these needs to the managers. This fends off any potential breakdown in employer-employee relationships.


The HR Manager, Line Manager and _________ share overall responsibility for effective HRM.


Employees are active participants in the HRM process.


In recent years, there has been an increasing call for employers to display a greater ______ responsibility in managing HR.


Workers and the general public are more aware of employee rights with regards to discrimination of ethnic minorities/disabled, workplace health and safety, equal pay and so on.


Apart from abiding by the legal requirements of HRM, managers should also make HR decisions based on a code of ____ to ensure fair and acceptable conduct.


The HRM code of ethics states that practitioners should implement public objectives and protect the public interest before blind loyalty to their employers preferences.


The main challenges to HRM today are the impact of _____________, technological advances, change management and handling worker diversity.


Globalization has introduced many complexities for the HRM. In dealing with other countries, issues such as cultures, laws and business practices need to be considered when exploring opportunities abroad.


According to Douglas McGregor, ________ states that some managers assume that employees dislike work, are lazy, and must be coerced to perform.

Theory X

Theory X managers assume that employees must be controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.


According to Douglas McGregor, ______ states that some managers assume that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.

Theory Y

Theory Y states that employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.


Douglas McGregor explained that managers oriented towards ________ assumptions believe that employees like work and will be motivated by intrinsic rewards that promote growth and self-direction.

Theory Y


In Tannenbaum and Schmidt's ___________ theory, the subordinate-centered leader relies entirely on the subordinates to make the decisions.


In the subordinate-centered leadership style, the boss delegates the decision-making authority to the subordinates.


According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt's contingency approach, there is no correct leadership style--to what extent a leader should be boss-centered or subordinate-centered depends on the _________.


Tannenbaum and Schmidt's contingency approach stated that the most effective leadership type depends on factors such as the kind of subordinates, time pressures, and what the leader is trying to accomplish.


The _____ contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leaders style of interacting with his or her subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.


Fiedler developed an instrument, which he called the least preferred coworker (LPC)questionnaire, which purports to measure whether a person is task or relationship oriented.


A significant finding of Fiedler's contingency theory was that a leader's style ______ be changed.


Fred Fiedler believed that a person's leadership style cannot be changed; they must try to find situations which match their style, or change the situation.


A key aspect of Fiedler's contingency theory is the idea of basing a leader's style on his motivation in terms of an ___ scale.


Fred Fiedler's contingency theory puts leaders on an LPC scale. High-LPC leaders are more relationship oriented, whereas low-LPC leaders are more task-oriented. LPC stands for least preferred coworker.


In an experiment, the _______ group is kept under normal conditions, and the experimental group is subject to a particular condition.


The point is to see the effect of the condition on the experimental group, and compare it to the group which hasn't experienced the condition.


An Ethnocentric theory supposes that all facts related to human development are ________ across cultures, races, and nations.


Multicultural Counseling and Therapy was developed in direct opposition to this homogenous worldview. Most counselors have come to recognize the important role that a persons culture has on the overall personality and behavioral development.