Flashcards in Performance Appraisals Deck (34):
On the surface, one may think that performance appraisals are only for determining whether an employee is doing a good job or not but in actuality, they can be used for a _______ of administrative and developmental purposes.
The developmental aims of appraisals are to evaluate the employees performance, critique it, provide suggestions for improvement, discuss training and set new goals.
The administrative goals of performance appraisals provide input for HR activities such as ____________ planning, making personnel decisions such as promotions or redundancies, and evaluating training programs.
Appraisals are commonly used to make compensation planning decisions, especially in performance-related pay situations.
________________ opportunity legislation has meant that companies must maintain detailed records of their performance appraisals as a method of documenting their HRM decisions to defend themselves should an employee sue them.
This legislation has meant that employers need to keep records to justify the nondiscriminatory nature of their HR decisions.
Performance appraisal programs can be formal and informal but their success depends on the purpose for it, attitude of the administrative staff and connection to ______________ goals.
The appraisals result in data which must be analyzed in context with the company's business objectives so that overall performance of the staff can be improved.
There are many reasons why formal appraisal programs sometimes fail and these include perceived bias of the rater, lack of __________ support and unclear performance standards.
In order to develop an effective appraisal program, the initial discussions must be between the HRM and the ____ managers.
Input from the line managers is vital since they have first-hand experience with their employees, their abilities and performance.
The first step in creating a good appraisal program is to establish the performance _________.
The standards should be obtained from the job analysis of essential job functions.
To determine the performance standards the four elements that must be considered are _________ relevance, criterion deficiency, criterion contamination and reliability of the standards over time.
Strategic relevance refers to the extent the performance standards are connected to the strategic goals of the company. For example, if a company states that all customer queries will be responded to within 24 hours; then it is reasonable to expect this to be a performance criterion in the appraisal of customer service representatives.
Criterion _______ refers to making sure that the performance standards reflect all the employees responsibilities and criterion contamination ensures that factors beyond the control of the employee that can affect performance are not used in the appraisal.
A factory has 200 workers. 100 work on new machines and the remainder work on the old ones. The workers on the new machines will be more productive because they have new equipment. This fact should not contaminate the performance standards when appraising the workers.
In the landmark US Supreme Court case of Albermarle Paper Company v _____, the court held that job performance standards had to be clearly defined.
This is the important case that required employers to comply with focused and precise job performance standards to ensure that HRM decisions were fair.
Manager or supervisor appraisal occurs when the review is conducted by the employees superior and that is then reviewed again by a more senior manager; whereas ___________ appraisal occurs when an employee carries out the appraisal on a superior.
This is what occurs in a subordinate appraisal. It is normally conduced for developmental rather than administrative reasons. It is good that managers get feedback from their charges.
____ appraisal refers to a review conducted by the employees manager with feedback obtained from peers but it is not commonly used because of concerns that peers rely on stereotypes, that they may be rating based on popularity or fears of retaliation if a low ranking is given.
There is a concern that the feedback given may be colored by stereotyping rather than being entirely unbiased.
Team appraisal is based on _________ Management concepts that stress team achievements rather than individual performance.
Total Quality Management (TQM) sets performance standards derived from the customers needs. The employees performance is compared against the standard and then ideas for improvement suggested.
________ appraisal is the performance appraisal of employees based on feedback from both external and internal customers with many managers setting customer service measures as a performance standard normally linked to incentive programs.
Customer Service Measures (CSM) are a performance standard and are normally linked to organizational targets
The ________ appraisal is meant to provide employers with an overall picture of the employees performance.
The term coined for this type of appraisal which combines feedback from as many sources as possible.
The 360-degree appraisal approach is well adopted amongst the bigger firms but to make it successful feedback should remain _________, managers should personally discuss the evaluation in detail with every employee, checks should be conducted to ensure that cheating and biases do not occur.
With the exception of the managers rating, the employee should not know how the evaluation team responded. This will ensure honesty.
Without proper appraisal training, the rater may well rate all the employees as average, thereby making the error of _______ tendency.
These raters do not like to rate any employee too high or too low, so they aim for the average.
The leniency or __________ error in appraising occurs when raters like to give very high or very low ratings.
This sort of error and occurs when managers think too highly (leniency error) or too little (strictness error) of the employees they are rating.
In a performance appraisal, the _______ error occurs when the rater gives a higher rating to the employee than is deserved based on recent good performance, whereas the contrast error happens when the raters assessment is biased in a positive or negative manner due to a comparison with the previous employee appraised.
This kind of mistake can be minimized if the appraiser has full details of the employees work record for the period in question.
When the rater gives the employee an ________ rating because of a personal connection, then the similar-to-me error occurs.
The rater and employee may have certain things in common, such as race, religion, home town etc and these factors may affect the rating given by the rater.
The three methods for conducting performance appraisals are the trait methods, behavior methods and _______ methods.
The trait methods are generally the most popular even though it can be considered subjective. They measure characteristics that are considered desirable for that job such as creativity, leadership etc.
The four trait approaches for __________ performance are the graphic rating-scale method, mixed-standard scale method, forced-choice method and essay method.
With the essay method, the rater writes up a statement that describes the employees behavior to list his or her strong and weak points and suggest ideas for improvement.
The graphic rating-scale method rates employees according to a scale of _______________ whereas the mixed-standard scale method employs a scale which compares employees performance and behavior.
Each characteristic is graded according to a scale in which the rater compares the degree to which the employee possesses that characteristic in his or her job performance.
When a rater has to select between _______ options to describe the employees job performance, then the trait system being used is the forced-choice method.
The rater is forced to make a choice, usually from two statements; not knowing which choice describes the favorable or unfavorable job behavior.
The __________ methods of performance appraisal are the critical incident method, behavioral checklist method, behavioral anchored rating scale (BARS) and behavior observation scales (BOS).
The BARS approach uses a series of 5 to 10 vertical scales. Each one represents an important performance indicator as revealed from the job analysis.
The behavior observations scales (BOS) analyzes the _________ of observed behavior in the employee whereas the behavioral checklist method requires the rater to check off the statements that are indicative of the employees performance.
The _____ method simply measures the employees achievements and so can be unreliable in the long-term. As a consequence, the management by objectives method has been developed to overcome the drawbacks of the results method.
The Management by Objectives (MBO) method assesses the employees performance based on achievements measured against previously agreed goals established by the employee and manager together.
The _____ methods are easy to develop and complete but it can be subjective and is not useful for feedback, whereas the behavioral methods are more detailed in enabling feedback but are expensive and time-consuming.
Behavioral methods are detailed, so they take longer to create and complete--hence the higher cost.
Management by ________ is a program that encompasses specific goals, participative set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.
Management by Objectives (MBO) emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. MBO focuses on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s organizations became obsessed with management by __________.
Management by objectives (MBO), is based on Peter Druckers admonition that management can only be judged by results.
There are three types of _________ interview: tell and sell, tell and listen and problem-solving interview.
The problem-solving interview requires, listening, accepting and responding in such a way that employee growth and development are possible.
The tell and sell interview requires the rater to use persuasion to change the employees behavior, whereas in the tell and listen interview the rater relates the positive and negative aspects of the employees performance and then the employee can _______.
The tell and listen interview allows the employee to express their feelings about the appraisal and vent any feelings of frustration, in the hope that it will not affect their job performance.
When __________ an employees performance, the three factors to consider are ability, motivation and environment.
Environmental factors that could affect job performance include management support, equipment and economic conditions.