Flashcards in Staffing Deck (48):
________ refers to the search for qualified applicants to fill job vacancies at an organization.
This is the definition of recruitment and is the first stage in the hiring process.
Careful strategic planning and job analysis must be carried out to ensure that recruitment is geared towards meeting the needs of the ____________.
The general needs, both in the immediate and longer term must be accessed to determine the type of recruitment that will be needed.
After the recruitment objectives and job analysis results have been examined, the recruitment activities can commence and target both employees and the ________ labor market.
Employees are called the internal labor market. By targeting both markets, companies can increase their pool and diversity of qualified applicants.
Companies can display job openings to their own employees by creating a job posting and searching a ______ inventory.
A talent inventory is a database that contains a broad range of information about a company's employees.
Recruitment within an organization results in either a promotion or a ________.
A promotion occurs when an employee has been moved into a position that carries a higher status. Usually, the employee is also awarded a pay raise.
Merit, seniority and potential are the three main criteria in determining _________.
Promoting an individual with potential is an incentive for that person to stay on at the firm rather than find new and more challenging opportunities elsewhere.
Promotions that are based on previous performance and seniority are very common in most organizations and is called the ____ principle.
The Peter Principle states that employees within an organization will advance to their highest level of competence and then be promoted to and remain at a level at which they are incompetent.
A _____ describes a move to a position of a similar status in the same organization that can be advantageous to the employee as it allows him or her to gain varied experiences.
A transfer is a lateral move in a company with fairly similar status, responsibilities and salary, as opposed to a promotion, which is an upward move.
A downward transfer is called a _______, where the employee is moved to a job of lower level and status.
The main advantages of ______ recruitment are that it is cost-effective and increases employee loyalty; however the main drawbacks are that the most suitable candidate may not considered; also, infighting and inbreeding may result in the workplace.
_______ occurs when an employee who is familiar with the organization continues to do things in the same old way; resulting in a lack of creative expression for corporate improvement.
Companies can tap into the ________ labor market through a variety of electronic and other media, through referrals from employees and via employment agencies.
Employment agencies are normally an excellent method of obtaining qualified candidates.
Large companies increasingly are subcontracting work to small businesses through a process called __________.
The increased practice of outsourcing specialized work has allowed many large firms to downsize and work with smaller staffs.
Outsourcing, or subcontracting work to outside companies, is a common staffing strategy by companies that lack ___________ resources internally.
Although outsourcing might give a company increased flexibility and additional expertise, it can also result in a loss of control over the work and a greater dependence on suppliers.
A _______ organization is a small, core organization that outsources major business functions.
Virtual organizations have created networks of relationships that allow them to contract out manufacturing, distribution, marketing, or any other business function where management feels others can do it better or cheaper.
When there are labor _________ for a particular profession, then foreigners may be hired.
If there are insufficient numbers of suitable candidates for a particular profession or post, then companies may seek to offer that job to a foreigner who is qualified.
The ______ workforce describes freelancers, part-time workers and subcontractors who are usually hired by organizations to meet unexpected or short-term challenges.
They are also sometimes known as free agents.
An increasingly used recruiting strategy is for companies to hire temporary employees to assess their on-the-job ___________ before hiring them permanently.
It is estimated that over a quarter of all temporary employees hired remain on the job assignment for one year or more.
________ describes the process of choosing qualified applicants to fill available job openings. Although the selection program is under the formal purview of the HRM, hiring decisions are normally made by the line managers.
The line managers will be the persons in charge of these new recruits and so are well placed to make a decision on the type of employees they wish to work with in order to meet their overall goals.
The __________ fit describes the process whereby the applicants knowledge, skills, abilities and other factors (KSAOs) are compared with the competencies required for that position.
Apart from the person-job fit, another important consideration is the ___________________ fit.
This refers to matching the applicants to wider organizational preferences.
________ procedures that are commonly used by businesses include application forms, interviews, employment tests, background checks and medical or drug tests.
Medical tests are normally performed to ensure that an applicant is in a sufficiently healthy condition to carry out his or her job.
The degree to which the various selection procedures produce comparable data over a period of time is known as _______.
An employment test is given to the same person three times in a week. Each time, the results are extremely different. This would indicate that the test is unreliable. A reliable test would produce consistent results.
The information about an applicant must not only be reliable but also _____.
A test may be reliable (i.e. produce consistent results every time), but not be valid (i.e. it doesn't really prove anything or test the correct abilities).
Application forms are commonly used by employers in the hiring process; however, due to Equal Employment Opportunity legislation, employers must _____ questions about age, gender, race, marital status and sexual orientation.
Employers are not allowed to discriminate on the grounds of age. Hence, such questions are generally not allowable.
The purpose of standardized employment tests is to objectively measure a persons ____s and compare it to other candidates.
KSAO stands for knowledge, skills, abilities and other factors. This will assist the HRM and line managers to come to a decision whether the applicant has adequate KSAOs that match to the job description.
________ tests can be administered to gauge aptitude and achievement.
An achievement test measures what an applicant knows and can do at that point in time.
The ________ test determines the candidates ability to learn.
The ability to pick up new skills and ideas is critical in any working environment.
Physical ability tests, job knowledge tests and work sample tests are other ________ administered tests utilized by employers.
These tests may be considered relevant for jobs which require considerable physical strength and stamina.
A job knowledge test determines the applicants understanding of the job whereas the ___________ test examines the applicants ability to perform tasks that are similar to the actual job in order to enable selection based on competency.
The work sample test enables employers to view applicants 'in action' when carrying out the intended job functions.
Normally, the key selection procedure, which is carried out in the vast majority of applications in the hiring process is the ______.
The interview is the most popular selection procedure because it gives the selection panel the opportunity of judge the applicant face-to-face, it is usually easy to organize and serves public relations purposes.
The different types of interview methods include the nondirective interview, structured interview, situational interview, __________ description interview, panel interview, computer interview and video interview.
In the behavioral description interview, the applicant is asked about the actions he or she took in a real work incident that took place previously. For example, the interviewer may ask the applicant how he or she last disciplined an employee.
The ____________ interview is one where the interviewer allows the applicant to determine the course of the discussion without making influencing comments.
The _____________ interview is one where the applicant is presented with a hypothetical situation and asked what he or she would do in the circumstances.
In making a decision on employee selection, employers will usually consider the applicants knowledge, skills, abilities, personality, values and __________.
Motivation is critical in determining if an applicant will make a good employee. It is pointless if an applicant has the knowledge, skills and abilities for the job but lacks the motivation to carry out the job itself.
Research indicates that human ___________ can be described using just five traits.
Psychologists call this The Big Five and they are: extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness.
The ________ model says that five basic personality dimensions underlie all others.
Research on the Big Five has found important relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance.
The two main approaches to making a selection decision are the clinical approach and the ___________ approach.
The clinical approach uses the personal judgments of the selection panel. They look at the applicants data and make a selection based on their understanding of the job.
The main drawback with the clinical approach is that the selectors personal ______ can be masked by what appears to be legitimate reasons for acceptance or rejection.
Selectors can use legitimate reasons for acceptance or rejection to choose or eliminate applicants. For example, a selector who is biased against non-white persons may discount a non-white applicant on the grounds that he or she lacks the motivation to perform the job; when that is not the case.
The ___________ approach of selection making is more objective because it examines data using the compensatory model, the multiple cutoff model or the multiple hurdle model to determine which candidate is most suitable for the job.
The compensatory model makes a selection decision taking into consideration that a high score in one area can be used to set off a lower score in another area. However, candidates are normally required to attain a minimum level of competency in all of the tests.
The multiple cutoff model only selects candidates that attain a _______ score for each selection test whereas the multiple hurdle model only selects applicants to go on to the next stage where they have attained the highest scores on the initial tests.
With the multiple cutoff model, a set cutoff score is assigned to each selection dimension and only applicants that reach that score will be considered.
_______ turnover can be defined as a situation when employees decide to leave their job in an organization without being asked or forced to do so.
Companies try to keep their voluntary turnover low; it is bad for their business because it is _________.
When an employee leaves the company, time, resources and money will have to be spent in finding and training a suitable replacement.
Some of the common reasons given by employees for leaving a company voluntarily are the lack of organizational support, poor _____________ with co-workers as well as their inability to balance work and non-work demands.
If an employee feels that an organization is not taking the time to find out his or her needs, such as in their preferred career path, then the employee is more likely to leave.
In order to understand the reasons for voluntary turnover, some companies have introduced an ___________ for completion by employees who are about to leave.
The exit survey allows employees to explain their reasons for leaving the company.
Organizations try to avoid reductions in their workforce, such as lay-offs because it can give rise to feelings of resentment and emotional anxiety in employees and therefore can have long-term implications for employee _______ and turnover.
Employees are not likely to be very loyal to a company where lay-offs occur regularly or are handled badly.
Some of the ways in which a firm can avoid lay-offs are by limiting overtime, retraining, not renewing part-time and contract workers, lowering the hours of the workweek, giving temporary leave, reducing executive pay and offering early __________ with preferential conditions.
Early retirement is an excellent way of reducing the workforce. This employee would be relatively close to retirement and can be given financial inducements to leave early.