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Flashcards in Labor Relations Deck (24):
1

The _____ relations process consists of four sequential stages which begin with the employees need for collective representation, the union then organizes its campaign, collective bargaining results in a contract and then that contract is administered.

labor

2

The agency responsible for the administration and ___________ of labor laws in the US is the National Labor Relations Board.

enforcement

The NLRB was created by the National Labor Relations Act to carry out this responsibility.

3

The two main tasks of the NLRB are to hold secret ballots to determine if employees want to ________ and to prevent and remedy unfair labor practices.

unionize

The ballots must be secret to reduce any possibility of intimidation and to make the process as fair as possible for employers and employees.

4

Employees unionize because they are in a stronger position as a _____ when acting on grievances with the management, as well as for economic and social needs.

group

Banding together as a group increases their positional strength and bargaining power as opposed to acting individually.

5

The economic reasons for unionization refer to employment conditions such as wages, ________ and working conditions.

benefits

Benefits such as the length of vacation, leave and health insurance are issues that some workers may be unhappy about, causing them to join a union.

6

Research has shown that the most common reason given for unionization by employees who are dissatisfied with the management is __________.

favoritism

Favoritism shown by managers in areas such as discipline and promotions is the most commonly given reason for joining a union.

7

Employee committees involve discussion and the resolution of __________. As these committees do not involve labor agreement negotiations, companies support them in order to avoid unionization.

grievances

Although employee committees involve the discussion of grievances between employees and their employers, as long as they do not involve the negotiation of labor agreements, for example, wages and employment conditions, they are allowed to exist within a company without retribution from the National Labor Relations Act.

8

In some states, union _____ are allowable; therefore, employees must join the union as a condition for their employment.

shops

A union shop is a condition in a labor contract which mandates union membership as a condition of the job.

9

Companies have more recently had to include issues of ______ harassment into the organizing, collective bargaining, and contract administration issues. These cases have been on the rise largely due to the increasing numbers of women working in male dominant fields.

sexual

Sexual harassment has been recognized as a form of discrimination and is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

10

In organizing a union, the five steps that must be taken are employee _______, holding of the first organizational meeting, creation of an in-house organizing committee, election petition and voting preparation as well as contractual negotiations.

contact

Employee contact is arguably the most important stage in determining whether to unionize. Employees will decide if there are advantages to unionization. Then, information is collected on employees' needs and concerns.

11

After the first organizational meeting, the organizing committee must drum up as much support for the union as possible by getting workers to ____ an authorization card.

sign


An authorization card is an undertaking signed by the employee authorizing the union to act on his or her behalf for the purposes of collective bargaining with the employer.

12

A minimum of ____ of employees must sign their authorization cards before the NLRB will hold a representation election to determine if the employees really want unionization.

30%

13

_____________ is a process of negotiating a labor contract between the union and employers, which may include the application of economic pressure such as strikes or boycotts by the union and plant closures by the employers.

Collective bargaining

Strikes and boycotts are the 2 main methods by which a union can apply economic pressure to the employer.

14

The first step in collective bargaining process is negotiation preparation, when data such as grievances, wage details and disciplinary actions are collected and then bargaining _____ are formed.

teams

The bargaining team is critical as they will be dealing with the management bargaining team to come to a resolution. The union team is normally headed by the union president, who would normally have an additional 3 to 5 members in his or her team.

15

The second step in collective bargaining is the development of bargaining __________; with the third step being the negotiation of the agreement itself before the final step of formalizing the agreement.

strategies

Formulating an effective strategy in collective bargaining is important in determining a positive conclusion to the process. The employer would normally have a written strategy that includes a list of possible proposals by the union and plans to deal with a possible strike. The union will normally present demands that are inflated to allow room for negotiation.

16

_______ is a method for settling disputes out of court, and involves a third party which has the power to make a final, binding decision.

Arbitration

Arbitration is one of the two major methods for settling a dispute out of court. The other is mediation.

17

_________ involves a third party helping the two parties to reach an agreement, but does not have the power to impose a settlement.

Mediation

On the other hand, an arbitrator helps resolve a dispute, but has the power to make a decision which binds the two parties.

18

The US collective bargaining system is ___________ but the practice of interest-based bargaining has become more popular recently and it concentrates on resolving mutual problems for the long-term benefit of all parties.

adversarial

Interest-based bargaining adopts a problem-solving approach that is effective for all concerned.

19

When unions formulate a settlement agreement for one company, they then attempt to use this settlement when negotiating with related companies. This type of bargaining is known as _______ bargaining.

pattern

20

The main impact of unionization on employers is the inability of the management to unilaterally make __ decisions.

HR

The management will not have complete power over making HR decisions since the union would like to have their voice heard over matters that affect the employees. These powers can be worn down at the bargaining table, at a grievance procedure, and through strikes.

21

Employers will try to discourage employees from forming a union by emphasizing the present good employer-employee relations as well as focusing on the ___________ elements of unionization.

unfavorable

Unfavorable elements include strikes and union dues. Unions also commit unfair labor practices and these may be highlighted by employers.

22

Employers want to _____ unionization and so many employers have adopted strategies such as offering better wages and benefits, improving work conditions, training the HRM in modern HR skills such as staff motivation and job design and creating formal procedures to handle grievances and complaints by employees.

avoid

One of the main reasons why workers unionize is that they feel that their grievances are not dealt with properly. So, by instituting proper formal procedures such as peer-review committees and step-review complaint systems, employees' grievances should be appropriately aired and handled to the satisfaction of all parties.

23

In non-unionized workplaces, the formal procedures such as the step-review and peer-review systems to handle employees grievances are collectively known as __________ dispute resolution.

alternative

In unionized workplaces, the grievance procedure is normally included in the labor agreements. Employers in nonunionized workplaces have introduced alternate dispute resolution (ADR) to discourage unionization and to reduce the chances of being taken to court for discrimination or wrongful dismissal claims.

24

Increased domestic and global competition as well as technological advancements has resulted in _____ membership declining.

union

Globalization has meant that a sizeable portion of blue-collar workers are being made redundant in favor of hiring cheaper foreign workers abroad. Rapid technological progress has also meant that blue-collar workers are in less demand as jobs become more computerized and automated, requiring less input from humans.