Flashcards in Training and Development Deck (35):
Training and development can be described as the spectrum of activities promoted by an organization to _______ the skills of the employees.
Ongoing training and development will improve the skill base of employees.
The aim of any training program is to equip the participants with new skills which they can then successfully _______ in the performance of their jobs.
It is very important that the skills learned by trainees be successfully transferred or utilized by employees when performing their duties as there is no point in having these skills if they cannot be used when working.
___________ refers to the organizational program that familiarizes new employees with their work environment, job functions and team units.
The advantages of creating an ___________ program are reduced employee turnover, raised productivity, heightened employee morale, lower recruiting and training costs as well as allaying the concerns of new employees.
Employee turnover is reduced because employees will develop a sense of belonging and comfort from an orientation program and hence are more likely to stay with the company.
An orientation program would normally include an introduction to other workers, ____________ for dress, attendance and behavior, employment conditions such as pay and hours, breakdown of job functions and safety regulations.
From an insurance and legal compliance perspective, it is critical that safety regulations be clearly explained to new staff members.
Career ________ is the process by which a persons values, strengths, weaknesses, interests, abilities and goals are matched to their career path.
When assisting young managers to plan their careers, companies should be mindful that young people seek meaningful, challenging, assignments and so some companies have introduced fast-track programs so that these individuals can follow an ___________ career path.
These programs allow for diverse, challenging, important assignments requiring a high level of responsibility from the young managers.
Training programs need to be designed based on the teaching objectives, trainee readiness and motivation, principles of learning and teacher _______________.
Companies will want to select teachers that are good at imparting knowledge to the employees.
The teaching objectives of a training program are the desired outcomes of the program whereas trainee readiness and motivation refers to the experience and background knowledge that is ________ for trainees to successfully undergo the program.
Trainees who are mature and experienced enough will be better prepared to attend such programs.
Adhering to the principles of learning will ensure that the participants can understand and ________ what they have been taught.
In order for a training program to succeed trainees must not only understand but also remember what has been taught.
The 8 principles of ________ are goal setting, individual differences, active practice and repetition, whole-versus-part learning, massed-versus-distributed learning, feedback and reinforcement, meaningfulness and presentation and finally modeling.
Modeling refers to learning through observation and then by actually doing it.
____ setting clarifies the purpose of training by focusing and motivating behavior or it can simply lay down the map for the training program, its purposes and key learning points.
By taking time to explain the purposes and reasons for the training, then the interest levels of the participants rise and hence focuses and motivates behavior.
The meaningfulness of the presentation refers to the delivery of training materials in a fashion which the trainees can readily relate to, whereas individual differences refers to the accommodation of the different styles of ________ presented by the students.
Different people learn differently and at different rates. So, for example, some people learn better through a visual presentation whereas others prefer an audio presentation.
___________ learning is usually preferred for training programs because research has shown that arranging classes into a series of short lessons over a period of time makes it easier for the participants to absorb and retain information.
Distributed learning and it is usually preferred over massed learning where students are subjected to longer duration of training over a shorter period of time.
Feedback and _________ are critical to ensure that employees remain motivated and have actually learned the subject matter.
Feedback focuses on emphasizing the right things that the employee is doing and de-emphasizes the wrong things done by the employee.
_____ skills training is routinely carried out by many organizations as the lack of these skills can have a major impact on workplace safety, customer service, productivity, product quality and environmental safety.
In order to execute essential job functions, the basic skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening are critical.
Many companies carry out team training to ensure that the _______ and behavior dynamics of the team interact successfully to meet organizational goals.
The process dynamics of a successful team include good meeting skills, problem solving, brainstorming, project planning and goal setting.
Over half of US companies sponsor diversity training to raise awareness of the changing and varied ____________ of the workforce.
Employees need to be aware of equal opportunity legislation, affirmative action plans and the benefits of a diverse workforce.
To create a training program that _________ the benefits of individual and organizational performance, a systems approach should be adopted.
The systems approach is a thorough model of assessment that ensures the best possible result if correctly implemented.
The four stages of the _______ approach are needs assessment, program design, implementation and evaluation.
The evaluation phase is necessary to determine the efficacy of the training program.
The factors for evaluating training programs are _________, learning, behavior and results.
This method gauges the reactions of the participants whether they liked the program and content or not. These reactions are usually generalized rather than focused feedback.
The learning criterion refers to measuring the skills learned by employees from the program as compared with those who have not attended the program, whereas the ________ criterion describes the transfer of training to the performance of the job.
The behavior criterion refers to the effective application of skills learned at training to the actual job functions.
The results aspect of training evaluation refers to the final results of the training in terms of increased productivity, decreased _____ and increased profits.
One of the main reasons for introducing training programs in companies is the eventual decrease in company costs as a consequence of improving the methods of working at the company.
The _____ assessment element of the systems approach to training comprises of three types of analyses: organization analysis, task analysis and person analysis.
Task analysis is the method of determining what the training content should consist of based on an examination of the tasks and duties of the job.
_____ analysis determines which employees need or do not need training whereas organization analysis focuses on the areas of the organization that require training based on a study of the organization as a whole.
It is wasteful to train employees in a subject matter in which they are already proficient.
The training methods commonly used for _____________ staff include on-the-job-training (OJT), apprenticeships, cooperative training, classroom teaching, self-directed learning, audiovisual learning, e-learning and simulation methods.
Cooperative training mixes formal classes with on-the-job experiences. This may take the form of internships or government training.
________ learning, also known as programmed instruction, is a method of training where materials such as books and computers are used to break down information into small logical learning segments that require regular responses from the trainees.
At the end of each segment, the trainee is required to answer one or more questions by typing in an answer or pushing a button. If any are wrong, then the information is re-presented in a different format and more questions are posed.
________ is becoming increasingly popular as a means of delivering training to employees via the Internet and it has many advantages that include cost savings, and the fact that employees can learn at their own pace and at a time and place of their choosing.
Employees can choose to receive training when they are at home, in the workplace, in a hotel when on a business trip or any other place of their choosing, at their convenience.
______________ is a type of training which involves a long-term obligation to work under a skilled worker in return for training in that skill.
Apprenticeship involves working under a skilled worker to learn his trade. Other types of training include on-the-job training, vestibule training, and job rotation.
_________ training involves in-house training, but it is in an area separate from the normal pressures of the position.
What the employee produces during Vestibule Training may be actually used by the company, but the important thing is that he is in a separate area specifically for training.
________ employees are normally trained using seminars and conferences, case studies, on-the-job experiences, role playing and behavior modeling.
Behavior modeling is a training method that shows the trainees the preferred behavior and then allows them to practice that behavior and receive feedback.
On-the-job experiences for managers would include coaching, understudy assignments, _______ transfer and job rotation.
A lateral transfer involves horizontal movement of the manager to a different department, so that he or she can experience new skills and develop new knowledge.
A career ___________ program is one that matches the needs of the employee with those of the company but in order to be successful it must have the complete support of the top management.
A __________ development plan is one usually adopted by companies undergoing strategic change or creating a transnational organizational foundation.
Leadership activities are usually stressed when strategic change is occurring in a company. When creating a transnational structure, leadership issues arise, as the competencies required for traditional international managers are different to those required for a transnational role.