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Semester 5 November > Anatomical Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomical Pathology Deck (75)
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Intracellular inclusions seen in Parkinson's

Lewy bodies

1

T1 MRI shows

Lipid

Anatomy

2

T2 shows

Water

Nature of lesion

3

Mechanisms of cerebral oedema

Cytotoxic
Vasogenic

4

Cytotoxic oedema is...

Increased intracellular fluid secondary to cell membrane injury.
Eg hypoxia, toxins

5

Vasogenic oedema is...

Disrupted BBB leading to increased intercellular fluid.
Eg localized - adjacent to inflam, tumour
Generalized - entire brain

6

Egs of ring enhancing lesions

Abscess
Metastatic tumour
Late hemorrhage
Late infarct

7

Neonatal bacteria causing meningitis

E. coli
L monocytogenes

8

Childhood meningitis organisms

H influenzae
S pneumoniae
N meningitidis

9

CNS reaction types to viruses

1. Acute myelo/meningo/encephalitis
2. Post vaccinal/ acute perivenous demyelination
3. SSPE

10

Types of extra cerebral haemorrhage

Epidural
Subdural
Subarachnoid

11

Causes of subarachnoid haemorrhage

Rupture of berry aneurysm
Idiopathic
Blood dyscrasias
Rupture of AV malformation

12

Define berry aneurysm

Internal elastic laminate damage with developmental arterial media defect at bi/trifurcation

13

Types of Intracerebral haemorrhage

Primary and secondary

14

Cause of primary intracerebral haemorrhage

Rupture of Charcot-Bouchard micro aneurysms of penetrating cerebral arteries

15

Who is most atrisk for primary Intracerebral haemorrhage

Middle aged to elderly hypertensives

16

Causes of secondary Intracerebral haemorrhage

Mycotic aneurysms
AV malformations
Thrombocytopenia
Neoplasms
Vasculitis

17

Types of lesions in traumatic haemorrhage

Focal (contusions, lacerations, coup and contrecoup)
Diffuse (diffuse axonal injury)

18

Most common site of brain tumour in children

Posterior fossa

19

Common midline brain tumours

Germinoma
Pituitary adenoma
Craniopharyngioma
Meningioma

20

Common CP brain tumours

Acoustic schwannoma
Meningioma

21

Common peri ventricular brain tumours

Ependymoma
Neurocytoma

22

Common parenchymal tumours

Glial - astrocytoma, oligodendroma, glioblastoma
Neuronal - neurocytoma

23

Common metastatic brain tumours

Ca lung, breast, colon
Melanoma
Choriocarcinoma

24

Therapy given for leukaemia in brain

Intrathecal cytotoxic therapy

25

Adaptive mechanisms for raised ICP

Reduce CSF
Pressure atrophy of brain
Reduce blood volume

26

False localizing sign in raised ICP

Kernohan's notch

27

Cushing's triad

Raised systolic BP
Bradycardia
Irregular breathing

28

Methods used to decrease ICP

Decrease CO2 (keep normocapnic) as CO2 dilated blood vessels
Mannitol creates osmotic gradient taking water out of neurons

29

Major risk factors for stroke

HPT
Atherosclerosis
Previous stroke