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Semester 5 November > Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology Deck (79)
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Fx of outer pigmented layer of retina

Absorb light
Prevent scatter
Support neural retina
Recycles photopigment

1

Structure of muscle spindle

Fluid filled capsule
Lie in parallel with extrafusal fibres

2

What do muscle fibres measure

Length and rate of change of muscle

3

Types of muscle spindles

Nuclear bag and chain

4

Afferent fibres of muscle length detecting muscle spindles

1a and ll

5

Afferent fibres of muscle rate of change detecting muscle spindles

1a

6

Efferent supply to muscle spindles

Gamma 1 = dynamic
Gamma 2 = static and nuclear chain

7

Structure of Golgi tendon

Lies in series with muscle fibres
Within tendon
Collagen interwoven with axons of 1b afferents

8

Inter neuron 1b is inhibitory and synapses with...

Alpha motor neuron of same muscle = soft landing

9

What are central pattern generators

Generate rhythmic pattern of motor activity with phasic sensory input

10

What do bursting cells do

Drive motor neurons episodic behavior (central pattern generator)
Do this by producing plateau potential

11

Mechanism used when walking by central pattern generators

Reciprocal inhibition of flexors/extensors

12

Motor neurons in cochlear come from

Superior olivary nucleus

13

Frequency at which cochlear Afferent fibre most sensitive

Characteristic frequency

14

Sound pathway

Cochlear nerve > cochlear nucleus > trapezoid body > superior olive > lateral lemniscus > inferior colliculus (sound localization) > medial gen inculcate nucleus > primary auditory nucleus

15

Receptors for dorsal columns

Pacinian corpuscles
Golgi tendons

16

Functional modules of V1

Ocular dominance columns
Orientation columns
Blobs

17

Neurons from substantia nigra to basal ganglia

Nigrostriatal neurons

18

DOPA formed from

Tyrosine

19

Tract from midbrain to hypo campus

Mesolimbic

20

Midbrain to frontal cortex

Mesocortical

21

Vermis output

-> fastigial nucleus -> vestibular and reticular nuclei -> descending tracts

BALNCE

22

Intermediate hemisphere output

Interposed nuclei (emboli form and globose) -> red nucleus and thalamus

DISTAL MUSCLES OF LIMBS AND DIGITS

23

Cerebrocerebellar output

Dentate nucleus -> ventrolateral thalamus -> cerebral cortex -> corticospinal

PLANNING/REHEARSAL OF MOVEMENT.
ASSESSMENT OF MOVEMENT ERRORS.

24

Define tonotopic mapping

Various regions of cochlear respond to different frequencies. CNVlll projects to slightly different places in CNS

25

How are glutamate connections strengthened

Ca/calmodulin kinase activity
Retrograde messengers

(NB need protein synthesis for long term memory)

26

What do NMDA receptors need to fire

Glycine, glutamate, depolarization of post synaptic neuron to release Mg

(NB no zinc)

27

Name and brief description of metabotrophic glutamate receptor

Diacylglycerol-inositol triphosphate
G-protein -> GTP(PLC) -> PIP2 -> DAG and IP3 = Increase Ca

28

Types of long term memory

- implicit (unconscious, habits)
- explicit (conscious)

29

Role of the hippocampus in memory

- necessary for formation of new explicit memories
- temporary storage place for memories