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Semester 5 November > Chemical Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemical Pathology Deck (77)
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Egs of non invasive prenatal screening

Ultrasound
Doppler studies
MRI
Maternal serum biochem

1

Egs of invasive prenatal screening

Amniocentesis
Chorionic villus sampling
Cordocentesis

2

Tests done on amniotic fluid

Karyotyping
DNA
Biochem
Enzyme studies

3

Possible complications of amniocentesis

Miscarriage
Transient fluid leak
Intrauterine infection

4

When is amniocentesis done

15-18 weeks

5

Routes of chorionic villus sampling

Transcervical
Transabdominal

6

Test done on villus sample

Karyotyping
DNA
Enzyme analysis

7

Possible complications of chorionic villus sampling

Miscarriage
Bleeding
Infection
Limb defects

8

When is villus sampling done

8-13 weeks

9

Function of hCG

Stimulate corpus luteum to continue producing progesterone in early preg before placenta takes over.

10

What produces hCG

Syncytiotrophoblasts

11

What causes increase in hCG

Pregnancy
Trophoblastic disease
Ectopic pregnancy
Down's syndrome

12

hCG alpha subunit common to..

TSH, FSH, LH

13

In hCG intermediate range 5-25 then..

Do serial measurements.
If more than double per day = viable
If not, do ultrasound = ectopic/ spontaneous abortion.

14

When is triple test done

15-23 weeks (in second trimester)

15

What is triple test

AFP, unconjugated oestriol e3, hCG

16

What is added for quad test

Dimeric inhibin A

17

Where is AFP produced

Fetal yolk sac then liver

18

Causes of increased AFP

NTD, abdo wall defect, fetal renal disease, oligohydramnios, multiple preg, fetal death, incorrect dates, tumour (HCC), duodenal/ oesophageal atresia.

19

Causes of AFP decrease

Down's syndrome
Edward's syndrome

20

What organs need to be functional to produce oestriol E3

Fetal adrenal, liver and placenta

21

Causes of oestriol E3 decrease

Fetal death
Disruption in synthetic pathway
Chromosome abnormality

22

What produces inhibin A

Placenta

23

Cause of increase inhibin A

Down's syndrome

24

What is PAPP-A produced by

Placenta

25

What causes PAPP-A increase

Coronary artery syndrome

26

Early decrease in PAPP-A..

Down's syndrome

27

When best to do AFP

16-18 weeks

28

What can be tested in cell free DNA

Sex (7 weeks)
Fetal RhD

29

Fx CSF

Support
Shock absorption
Transport of substances