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Horse Quiz Bowl > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (328):
1

Blood, blood vessels, and the heart make up what body system?

Cardiovascular

2

What serves as the pump for the cardiovascular system?

The Heart

3

What is primary function of the equine cardiovascular system?

To deliver oxygen from the lungs to the individual tissues of the body

4

What additional function does the cardiovascular system provide?

It also provides nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract to the tissues

5

Proper function of the cardiovascular system depends on what?

Maintaining adequate circulation

6

How many chambers are in the heart?

four

7

In the horse, what flows through a series of vessels known as the vascular system?

blood

8

The cardiac muscle is composted of what three major types of muscle?

Arterial, ventricular, specialized excitatory and conductive muscle fibers

9

Where are substances carried in the blood exchanged with the cells of the body?

At the capillaries

10

What is blood composed of?

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

11

What are erythrocytes?

Red blood cells

12

What are leukocytes?

White blood cells

13

What type of blood cells carry oxygen?

Red blood cells

14

What is the iron-containing protein in red blood cells?

Hemoglobin

15

The celluar elements of blood are suspected in a liquid known as what?

Plasma

16

What are blood vessels?

The series of tubes through which the blood flows

17

Blood flowing away from the heart passes through what?

Arteries, arterioles, capillaries and venules

18

Blood is returned to the heart through what?

Large veins

19

What is the main arterial source in the hind leg?

The femoral artery

20

What is stroke volume?

The amount of blood pumped by the ventricle with each heart beat

21

What is the measure of how much blood the heart can pump per minute?

Cardiac Output

22

How is cardiac output determined?

It is the product of heart rate times stroke volume

23

What two sources are available to supply the extra quantity of blood required by exercising muscles?

Increased cardiac output and redistribution of blood away from less active tissue

24

If an adult horse weighs 1,000 pounds, how many liters of blood would the body contain?

50 liters

25

What is the result of a thick throatlatch when a horse flexes at the poll?

Breathing and blood flow may be restricted

26

Because horses eat fibrous feeds and are monogastric, they are classified as what?

Nonruminant herbivores

27

What are the two main functions of the mouth?

1) To masticate food 2) To wet it with saliva

28

What system regulates the horse's salivary glands?

The nervous system

29

Name the 3 pairs of glands that produce saliva

1) Parotid glands 2) Sublingual glands 3) Submaxillary glands

30

What are the three salivary glands in a horse?

Parotid, submaxillary, and the sublingual

31

What are the accissory organs that aid in digestion?

Teeth, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas

32

What is the cartilage trap that serves to prevent food from entering the larynx when swallowing?

Epiglottis

33

How long is the esophagus in a mature horse?

50-60 inches long

34

True or False? Distention of a horse's stomach can be so severe that it will rupture before vomiting occurs.

True

35

Where is the horses' gall bladder located?

The horse does not have a gall bladder

36

Where are red blood cells stored when the horse is not exercising?

In the spleen

37

The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small intestine all make up what part of the digestive system?

Foregut

38

How long is the small intestine?

70 feet

39

Where is the primary site of protien digestion?

The small intestine

40

Where in the horse's body are soluble carbohydrates digested to simple sugars?

The small intestine

41

How long does food remain in the horse's stomach before it starts passing into the small intestine?

Approximately 15 minutes

42

What organs are in the horse's hindgut?

Cecum, large colon, small colon, rectum

43

About how long is the large intestine of a horse?

25 feet

44

How long is the cecum?

4 feet

45

How long is the large colon?

10-12 feet and holds 86 quarts

46

How long is the small colon?

10-12 feet and holds 16 quarts

47

Name 5 of the eight main parts of the large intestine?

1) Cecum 2) Right ventral colon 3) Left venral colon 4) Left dorsal colon 5) Right dorsal colon 6) Transverse colon 7) Small colon 8) Rectum

48

What group of vitamins is synthesized by bacteria within the large intestines of the horse?

B Vitamins

49

How long does it take for food to pass through the cecum and large intestine?

36-72 hours

50

What organ removes lactic acid from the body?

The liver

51

How much fecal matter will a mature horse generally poduce in a 24 hour period?

28-40 pounds

52

True or False? On average, horses produce more fecal coliforms per day than dogs, sheep, and cattle?

False

53

What group of glands in the horse secretes hormones in the blood or lymph system?

Endocrine system

54

What are hormones?

Chemicals produces by various tissues that travel through the circulatory system to produce an effect on one or more organs

55

What is the study of hormones and their effects called?

Endocrinology

56

What body system exercises long range control over all other body systems?

The endocrine system

57

What is the hypothalamus?

Located deep within the tissues of the mid-brain, it is responsible for sending and interpreting messages from many sources and coordinating their signals to produce the desired effect

58

Where is the pituitary gland located?

At the base of the brain

59

Where is lutinizing hormone produced

Pituitary Gland

60

What hormone is produced by the thyroid gland if the blood calcium level is too high?

Calcitonin

61

What is one process that allows a horse to cool its body?

Sweating

62

Sweat glands are located over the horse's entire body with the exception of what parts?

The legs

63

Equine sweat is hypertonic. What does that mean?

That the sweat contains a signifigant amount of salts, primarily sodium and potassium

64

How much of reduction in body weight can occur in a 500kg horse after an endurance ride?

25-50kg

65

What is micturition?

Urination

66

Approximately how much urine will a horse void in a 24hr period?

4-7 quarts

67

If a horse experiences "renal failure," what part of the body is not functioning properly?

Kidneys

68

What is the most important part of a horse? If you don't have this, then you don't have a horse?

Feet, hooves

69

What is one well known quotation in the horse world about hoofs?

No foot, no horse

70

Describe a healthy hoof.

The hoof should be hard, with a slick, shiny and slightly waxy appearance. I should be free of grown or fever rings. the coronary band should not be dry and leathery but should contain enough moisture to feel and appear slighly resilient.

71

True or False? Grass is considered to be nature's hoof conditioner.

False. Water is nature's hoof conditioner

72

Name the parts of the exterior hoof?

Sole, frog, white line, hoof wall, periople, bar, heel, bulb, cleft of frog, commissure

73

What is between the periople and the white line?

Hoof wall

74

What percentage of the hoof wall is water?

25%

75

What percentage of the sole is water?

33%

76

What percentage of the frog is water?

50%

77

Which part of the hoof is the most elastic and which is the least elastic?

Frog is the most elastic and the wall is the least elastic

78

What has a spiral, columnar structure that helps resist compression and flexion?

Hoof tubules

79

Why are the sensitive structures of the horses' feet called sensitive?

Because they contain so many blood vessels and nerve endings that any injury to them causes pain and bleeding.

80

Which parts of the hoof do not contain blood vessels and nerves?

Hoof structures

81

What is the primary funtion of the sole?

Protection

82

The outer surface of the hoof wall is covered by the periople and stratum tectorium. What is the function of the stratum tectorium?

It helps protect the hoof wall from moisture evaporation

83

What part of the hoof bears the weight of the horse?

The hoof wall

84

What part of the horse's foot provides traction and absorbs shock?

The Frog

85

What is the groove along either side of the frog called?

The sulci

86

True or False? The hoof wall is the thickest at the toe and the thinnest at the quarters.

True

87

What separates the hoof wall from the sole?

White Line

88

What is the term for the distance between successive imprints of the same foot?

Stride

89

In one month's time how much will the hoof wall grow on an adult horse?

1/4-1/2 inch

90

What is the term for the elastic portion of the coronary band?

Coronary Cushion

91

What supplies blood to the sensitive structures of the foot?

Digital arteries

92

The functional balance of the horse's hoof has 3 dimensions around X,Y, Z axis. The movements of the foot are given names corresponding to those of an airplane in flight. What are these movements called?

Roll, Yaw, and Pitch

93

The normal ideal hoof supports the primary weight of the horse on which part?

The hoof wall

94

Is the hoof wall thicker at the quarters or the toe?

The toe

95

Which is more keratinized and harder the wall at the toe or at the quarters?

The toe

96

What condition may develop when there is no frog pressure or contact with the ground?

Contracted Heels

97

Which structures of the horse's hoof are classified as elastic structures?

Lateral cartilages, digital cushion, and the coronary cushion

98

What is a wedge-shaped structure with a fibro-fatty composition that is very elastic and has very few blood vessels and nerves?

The digital cushion

99

What are lateral cartilages?

Wing-like structures attached to the sides of the coffin bone

100

What is the elastic portion of the coronary band called?

Coronary Cushion

101

What are the shunts or alternate pathways that exist between the arteries and the veins, by-passing the capillaries called?

Arterio venous anastomoses or AVAs

102

What are venus plexuses?

they lie within the foot and are made up of and extensive network of veins that when compressed force the blood up the leg and back to the heart.

103

The sensitive structures of the foot are supplied with blood by what?

Digital Arteries

104

What would a stronger-than-usual pulse in the foot indicate?

That inflammation is present

105

What is the treatment for sole bruises?

seated out shoe, frog pressure shoe pad

106

What is the white line disease?

An infection in the hoof wall of hoof digestion fungi

107

True or False? Vitamin A is needed for growth and development of normal hoofs.

True

108

What do the hoof tubules look like?

They have a spiral columnar structure that helps them resist compression and flexion

109

What are the six physiological systems that affect performance?

Cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular, biomechanics and conformation, hematology, and nutrition.

110

What is the single most important characteristic in equine selection and why is it so important?

Balance- it forms the basis of movement, length of stride, and ultimately and performance

111

What are the most sensitive areas to touch on a horse and why?

The eyes, ears, and nose because the horse's survival depends on seeing, hearing and breathing

112

What mathematical equation can be used to estimate a horse's weight?

W= (HG)^2xBL
330

113

What is the term used to indicate that a horse may have a structural problem or deviation which may have only limited affect on the horse's ability to perform?

Serviceably Sound

114

What does it generally mean when a horse has excessive white around their eyes?

Nervous and flighty

115

Name three different vocal sounds or voice communication made by the horse.

Neigh, whinny, nicker, snort, squeal

116

At what age is a horse considered mature?

Five Years old

117

What is a togavirade?

A small lipid and protein enveloped ribonucleic acid particle

118

What is the oily waxy secretion that coats the horse's hair, protects it from overwetting and increases its insulating ability?

Sebum

119

On a weight basis, the horse's body consists of what percent minerals?

4%

120

The body of the horse is made up of many systems. Which system includes the brain, spinal cord, associated nerves, and special senses?

The nervous system

121

What are the signs of old age in the horse?

1) Drooping of lower lip 2) Lowered or sway back 3) Deep hollows above the eyes 4) Appearance of gray hairs

122

During an examination which mucous membranes are typically examined?

Inner eyelids, Inside of nostrils, Inner lips and gums, Vulva of mare

123

What appearance should normal healthy mucous membranes have?

Bright and moist and have a clean, pink color

124

How should you check for capillary refill time?

Press thumb against upper gum for a couple of seconds. Upon release of thumb pressure, the area should appear white but immediately return to the normal color within approximately 2 seconds.

125

What comprises the largest tissue mass in the horse's body?

Muscles

126

True of False? Muscle is an extremely adaptable tissue

True

127

What are the three catergories of muscles?

Smooth, cardiac, and skeletal

128

Name the body systems where smooth muscles can be found?

Digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and urogenital

129

In regard to muscles, what are the two main classifications of fibers?

Slow-contracting and fast-contracting

130

What attaches muscles to bones?

Tendons

131

What are the three basic types of muscle fiber?

Type I, HA, HB

132

Which type of muscle fibers are slow-contracting fibers?

Type I fibers

133

What happens to the oxygen need of tissues when exercising?

it dramatically increases

134

Muscles that work together to accomplish movement are called what?

Synergists

135

Muscles that work against each other are called what?

Antagonists

136

What attaches the foreleg to the horse's body?

Muscles and ligamentous material

137

What is muscle hyperplasia?

Increase in the number of muscle fibers

138

What is muscle hypertrophy?

An increase in the diameter of individual muscle fibers

139

What are intercostal muscles?

Muscles located in between ribs that are involved in inspiration

140

What are the bundles of smooth muscle fibers located in the dermis that attach to the hair follicle and the surface of the skin in such a manner that their contraction causes an erection for the hair?

Erectores pilorum

141

What molecule is used to produce muscular activity?

ATP

142

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine triphosphate

143

What two fundamental reactions resnthesize ATP?

Oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis

144

What is glycosis?

Breaks down glucose or glycogen into lactic acid

145

What is glycogen?

A form of stored fuel for exercise of high intensity and relatively short duration

146

What is oxidative phosphorylation?

It breaks down carbohydrates, fats and protein into energy with the involvement of oxygen.

147

What are fatty acids?

Fuel sources used during low intensity and long duration exercise

148

What is lactic acid?

A by-product of anaerobic glycolysis which causes fatigue in the muscles

149

What accumulates in the muscles and is believed to cause muscle soreness and stiffness 24-48 hours after an intense exercise bout?

Lactase

150

What is the anaerobic threshold?

The point in exercise at which lactase begins to accumulate in the muscle and spills over into the blood stream

151

A reaction that does not use oxygen is considered what?

Anaerobic reaction

152

A reaction that uses oxygen is what?

Aerobic reaction

153

True or False? Protein is an important energy source for contracting muscles, but is not an important structural component for muscle tissue.

False

154

What is the muscular part of the hind leg directly above the hock?

Gaskin

155

What is the main role of the hindquarters?

To provide the force for propulsion

156

True or False? The horse has no muscle below the knee or hock.

True

157

How many muscles control each ear so that they turn in almost any direction?

Ten-10

158

True or False? Muscle is an extremely adaptable tissue.

True

159

What is myofibril?

One of the slender threads of muscle fiber composed of numerous myofilaments

160

What are myosin and actin filaments?

Large polymerized protein molecules that are responsible for muscle contraction

161

The dark bands containing myosin filaments are called what?

A-bands

162

The light bands containing only actin filaments are called what?

I-bands

163

What is the portion of myofibril that lies between two successive Z-lines called?

A sacromere

164

What is the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscle?

A sacromere

165

What is the sacrotubular system in skeletal muscle composed of?

Sacroplasmic reticulum and the tubular system

166

The end of the nerve fiber contains a highly specialized structure where droplets of chemical neuro-transmitters are stored called what?

The end plate

167

What are three common characteristics of the "ideal" head?

Short, well set ears, large bold eyes, short distance from eye to muzzle, large nostrils, and refined muzzle with a shallow mouth

168

What is the junction between head and neck from ear to ear?

Throatlatch

169

What is the depth of the throat latch?

Usually equal to one-half the length of the head

170

What is the ideal ratio of the top to bottom of the horse's neck?

2:1

171

True or False? The distance from poll to muzzle is double the distance from eye to eye?

True

172

What is the ideal slope of the shoulder?

45-50 degrees

173

The withers, back, loin, and croup are what of the horse?

Topline

174

Where is the pivotal point of the horse's back?

Loin

175

The high point of the horse's back, located at the top of the vertebrae, between the shoulder blades, where the neck meets the back, is referred to as what?

Withers

176

What are the semi-horny structures located above the knees and on the lower portion of the hocks on the medial side of the leg?

Chestnuts

177

Are the chestnuts above or below the horse's knee?

Above

178

What is the function of the respiratory system?

To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the animal and its enviroment

179

What is the passageway to the respiratory system?

Nasal Cavity

180

When oxygen is taken in for use by the tissues and the carbon dioxide which is produced by these tissues is released it is referred to as what?

Respiration

181

What occurs during normal inspiration?

The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles expand the chest, which causes th eexpansion of the lung and allow air to flow in

182

What is respiratory frequency?

The number of breaths taken per minute

183

The amount of air inspired or expired during a normal breath is often referred to as what?

Tidal Volume

184

True or False? Tidal volume is the amount of air inspired and expired in a normal breath.

True

185

What is minute volume?

The product of tidal volume and respiratory frequency

186

What is the term for the total amount of air expired or inspired in a minute?

Minute volume

187

During normal inspiration, what forms a smooth passage for air flow into the trachea?

The pharynx and the soft palate

188

What functions as a barrier to food entering the trachea?

The pharynx, soft palate and larynx

189

What houses the vocal cords and is sometimes referred to as the voice box?

The larynx

190

How many liters of oxygen does the horse's body need per minute?

90 liters of oxygen per minute

191

What are intercostal muscles?

Muscles that are located in between the ribs that are involved in inspiration

192

What percentage of oxygen does air contain?

21%

193

What does the bronchial tree consist of ?

Large ducts that divide into smaller and smaller passageways in the lungs

194

Where do the alveolar ducts terminate?

Alveoli

195

What are the alveoli?

The functional units of the lung where gas exchange usually occurs

196

What is arterial hypoxemia?

The lowering of oxygen saturation of the arterial blood

197

How many bones make up the horse's skeleton?

205

198

On a weight basis, the horse's body consists of what percent minerals?

4%

199

What are the 4 classifications of bones?

1) Long 2) Short 3) Flat 4) Irregular

200

What determines balance?

the skeletal structure

201

What word is used to express the height of a horse?

Hands and inches

202

What is the minimum height of a mature horse?

14 hands or 56 inches

203

The skeleton contains approximately what percent of the total body calcium?

99%

204

What is the cranial cavity?

I encloses and protects the brain and supports many sense organs.

205

The bony framework of the head consists of how many bones?

34

206

What is the orbital cavity?

The bony socket that surrounds and protects the eye

207

What is the largest bone in the head of the horse?

Mandible

208

What two bones are fused to form the forearm?

Radius and Ulna

209

Name the internal bones of the horse's leg from the cannon bone down.

Sesamoid, short pastern bone, long pastern bone, navicular bone, coffin bone

210

What portion of the anatomy is composed of seven or eight carpal bones arranged in two rows?

The knee or carpus

211

What joints are located below the knee joint?

Fetlock, pastern, coffin joint

212

What joint is composed of the femur and the acetabulum?

Hip Joint

213

What is attached by a muscular sling that supports the thorax and reduces concussion?

Scapula or shoulder blade

214

How is the scapula attached to the vertebral column?

By a muscular sling

215

Does a sloping shoulder or straight shoulder make for a smoother riding horse?

A sloping shoulder

216

The layer within the joint capsule is sealed by a delicate layer of synovial membrane and is lubricated by a secretion called what?

Synovial Fluid

217

What is side bone?

Ossification or calcification of the lateral cartilages

218

Which bone is larger: the tibia or fibula?

Tibia

219

What structures hold bones together?

Ligaments

220

What attaches the splint bones to the cannon bones?

Ligaments

221

Which bones function chiefly as levers and aid in support of weight and locomotion?

Long bones

222

The horse's forelimbs bear what percentage of its weight?

65%

223

Why are there more injuries and unsoundness in the horse's front of limbs?

Since 65% of the horse's body weight is carried by the forelimbs, they are subject to the most stress and strain.

224

How many joints are there in the front leg of the horse?

6

225

How is the hind leg attached to the spine?

With a bone to bone connection

226

What is the hardest working joint in the horse's body?

The hock

227

The tarsal joint is commonly called what?

Hock

228

How many bones are in the tarsus or hock of the horse?

6

229

Name the major bone of the leg between the stifle and the hock.

Tibia

230

How many ribs does a horse have?

36 or 18 pairs

231

The first 8 pairs of the 18 pairs of ribs are called what?

true ribs

232

What are true ribs?

Ribs that are attached to the sternum by means of cartilage

233

What is the largest joint in the horse?

The stifle joint

234

How many joints are in the hind leg?

7

235

Where would you find coccygeal vertebrae of the spinal column?

Tail or caudal

236

How many bones are located in the horse's foot?

3

237

What are the 3 bones of the foot?

Coffin, Navicular, Short pastern bones

238

What is integument?

the skin and hair that covers the horse's body and forms the boundary between the animal and it environment.

239

A horse begins to grow a longer hair coat during the fall due to what?

Decreased day length

240

Which event stimulates hair growth of the horse: temperature or shortening of daylight?

shortened days

241

What are the two types of body hair?

The dense undercoat and the less prevalent long "guard" hairs

242

Hair covers most of the skin area on the horse except where?

Underneath the tail, around the genitals, and on the inside of the thighs

243

Where are the sebaceous glands located?

Same places as the hair follicles

244

What types of vision do horses have?

Binocular and monocular

245

What type of vision allows a horse to see areas on each side of its body?

Monocular vision

246

What type of vision does a horse use for viewing objects closer than 4 feet?

Monocular

247

The entire spatial area from which the complete visual image of an eye is formed is known as

Field of vision

248

What is the fluid that lubricates the eye?

Lacrimal fluid

249

What are the black nodules that are found on the upper part and lower margins of the pupils so they are on the iris?

Corpora nigra or granula iridica

250

What is the cornea?

The transparent portion of the front of the eyeball

251

When examinging a horse what are three of the vital signs that should be checked?

Pulse, temperature, respiration, capillary refill time, mucous membranes, skin pliability

252

What factor can cause variations in the TPR of an individual horse?

Time of day, Age and sex, Ambient temperature, wind and precipitation, Level and intensity of activity, Disease state

253

What is the average temperature of a horse?

100-101.5 F

254

Should a horse's temperature be higher at 7 am or 5pm?

5 pm

255

What is the normal body temperature for an adult horse?

100.5F

256

What is the normal pulse rate for a horse?

45-60 beats per minute

257

How is the heart rate measured?

By the number of time the heart beats in a given time

258

What is the heart rate of an adult horse at rest?

25-45 beats per minute

259

What is the maximum hear rate of the horse?

220-250 beats per minute

260

What is the pulse rate of a horse with heat exhaustion?

50-100 beats per minute

261

What is the body temperature of a horse with heat exhaustion?

105-109 F

262

Which should be lower, the pulse rate or the respiration rate?

Respiration rate should be lower

263

If the respiration rate is higher than the pulse rate it is known as what?

An inversion

264

What are two linings of the hoof wall?

periople and stratum tectorium

265

What does gingival refer to?

the gums of the mouth

266

What is the name for the muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

Diaphragm

267

What artery supplies blood to the brain, head, and face?

Carotid artery

268

What regulates sugar levels in the blood?

Insulin

269

Where would you find the deep flexor tendon?

Running down the back of the cannon bone and pastors into the hoof where it runs underneath the Navicular bone and attaches to the Coffin bone

270

What is the smallest blood vessel and what does it do?

Capillaries; connect the arteries and the veins

271

What is a quarter crack and how do you fix it?

A vertical crack in the hoof in the quarter section, can be fixed by special shoeing, a clinch or special graving of the hoof

272

Where are the canine teeth located?

The interdental space on the male horse

273

What is the name for the 2 glands in front of the kidneys?

Adrenal glands

274

What is anal atresia?

Blocked anus; foal born with no anal opening, hence no anal opening, hence no products of digestion may pass; surgical correction is rarely beneficial

275

What are the turbinate bones?

Bones in the nasal passage that filter and warm the air that is inhaled

276

Where are the fecal balls formed?

Small colon

277

What does the thyroid regulate?

Controls metabolic rate and produces thyroxin

278

What is a disadvantage to a thick neck?

Less flexible, more weight on the front end

279

What is another name for the first and second phalanges?

Long and short pastern bones

280

Define wry tail.

A tail that is carried to one side rather than being held straight

281

Define articulation.

Junction between two or more bones; joints

282

What is the artery that supplies blood to the eye?

ophthalmic artery

283

What is gonitis?

Inflammation of the stifle joint

284

What is a knocked down hip and why is it undesirable?

When one hip is lower than the other because of the fracture of the point of the hip on one side; undesirable because they develop lameness and have a hitching gait

285

What is a term for the thickening and hardening of the skin due to friction?

Callus

286

What is the name for spinal and brain fluid?

Cerebrospinal fluid

287

What is the term for being low in the withers with heavy shoulder muscling; having very little bone definition at the withers?

Mutten withers

288

What is the dental star?

A star shape or circle like structure near the center of the wearing surface of the permanent incisors; used in judging age

289

What artery supplies blood to the intestines?

Mesenteric artery

290

The 3rd, 4th, and 5th thoracic vertebrae make up what part of the horse?

Withers

291

What is the painful swelling of the knee joint called?

Carpitis

292

What is the channel between the middle ear and nasopharynx that allows adjustment of the pressure of air int he cavity to equal the outside air pressure?

Eustachian Tube

293

What is the name for the disk shaped bone that forms the ridge at the back of the knee?

Accessory carpal bone

294

What is the name for the disease of the small bone of the horse's foot?

Navicular

295

What is the infundibulum?

The funnel-shaped membrane that traps the egg when it is released from the follicle of the ovary

296

What are the melanocytes?

Cells that are responsible for the production of melanin

297

How do incisors change as the horse gets older?

They slant forward and outward more, and become triangular shaped

298

What does light reflect off of in the eye?

Tapetum

299

What is the congenital defect where the roof of the horse's mouth is split and allows food to regurgitate into the nose?

Cleft plate

300

What is the purpose of the laminae?

To connect the hoof wall to the coffin bone

301

What does the term cathammed mean?

Having long and relatively thin thighs and legs

302

What is the first vertebrae and what does it do?

Atlas; permits flexion and extension of the head and neck

303

What is the name for wave like muscles contractions that move food esophagus and along the muscular walls of the intestine?

Perisalsis

304

What is intestinal flora?

Bacteria and other micro-organisms normally residing in the intestines

305

What does vesicular refer to?

Fluid filled sac

306

Define subcutaneous?

Beneath the skin

307

What are the two chambers that blood is pumped out of the heart?

Ventricle

308

What is the fermentation vat?

Cecum

309

What is carpitis?

Painful swelling of the knee

310

What vein is involved in a blood spavin?

Saphenous vein

311

What is the term for shrinking of the shoulder muscle?

Sweeny

312

What is the term for a fluid filled sac that is situated in places where there is friction?

Bursa

313

What are two things the lymph system does?

Collects fluid from between the cells and returns the to the bloodstream; helps to fight infection and maintaining fluid balance in the body

314

Why is a thick neck and throat latch undesirable?

It lacks suppleness, balance, and mobility

315

What is periosteum?

Membrane covering the bones

316

What is gastric lipase?

An enzyme that helps digest fats into constituent fatty acids and glycerol

317

What muscle contracts the lenses of the eye?

Ciliary muscle

318

Give one purpose of the fallopian tubes?

Conduct the ova from the ovary to the uterus and are the cite of fertilization

319

What is a green osselet?

Inflammation of the joint capsule of the fetlock joint

320

What is a substance secreted by the stomach to activate pepsin and break down protein?

Hydrochloric acid

321

What is deglutition?

The act of swallowing

322

What is the endocardium?

the tough membrane that lines the four chambers of the heart

323

What is the purpose of bile?

To assist in the digestion of fats and neutralize the acidic digesta from the stomach

324

What is the large bone in the thigh?

Femur

325

What is the carpus valgus?

Deformity of the knee when the cannon bone points away front he mid-line when viewed the fronts bow legged

326

What is a corn?

A bruise to the soft tissue underlying the horny sole of the foot that manifests itself in a reddish discoloration of the sole immediately below the affected area; can cause serious lameness

327

What are tactile hairs?

The hairs on the outside of the horse that helps the horse to distinguish between good an bad feed

328

Where is the digital extensor tendon and what does it do?

It runs down the front of the leg, attaches to the coffin bone, it extends the leg forward