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Flashcards in New Questions Deck (250):
1

What is the easiest method to monitor whether a horse's energy needs are being met by its feed?

Monitor weights on a regular basis

2

Name four fat soluble vitamins.

A,D,E,K

3

What two factors influence hoof size?

Heredity and nutrition

4

List five sensitive structures of the foot.

1) Perioplic ring 2) Coronary band 3) Terminal papillae of sensitive laminae 4) Sensitive frog 5) Sensitive sole

5

List five parts of hoof structure

1) Periople 2) Hoof wall 3) White line 4) Frog 5) Sole

6

Which part of the hoof is higher in zinc than other hoof parts?

Wall

7

Which part of the hoof is lower in zinc than other hoof parts?

Frog

8

The frog is significantly higher in what three minerals than other hoof parts?

Potassium, magnesium, and calcium

9

Which vitamin is necessary for the growth and development of normal hooves?

Vitamin A

10

How can you prevent a deficiency in Vitamin A?

Feeding of green feed

11

What are the small vessels that exchange nutrients from the blood within the tissues?

Capillaries

12

What are the shunts, or alternative pathways, that exist between the arteries and the veins, bypassing the capillaries called?

Arterio Venous Anasotomes or AVA's

13

Do hooves grow faster in a cold temperature or in a warm temperature?

Warm

14

What is the average hoof growth rate?

3/8" per month

15

Define balance, as it applies to horse shoeing.

Equal weight distribution around the center of gravity of the horse's limb

16

What are considerations of conformation or stance?

Geometric or static balance

17

What are considerations of movement or gait?

functional or dynamic balance

18

What type balance takes into account the horse's conformation and is the prime consideration that will provide for the needs of most horses?

Geometric balance

19

The functional balance of the horses hoof has three dimensions around the X,Y, and Z axis. The movements of the foot are given names corresponding to those of an airplane in flight. What are these movements called?

Roll, Yaw, and Pitch

20

Where is the center of gravity of a standing horse?

At a point behind and above the elbow in the center of he body

21

What are the terms foot fall, lateral swing, and animation referring to ?

The movements of the foot around the X,Y, and Z

22

What is medial/lateral balance?

Rasping the sides of the hoof to create a base with equal sides, in addition to trimming the ground surface of the hoof with nippers.

23

From the hoof bottom, where is the center of gravity located?

3/8-3/4 inch back from the apex of the trimmed frog

24

The base of what bone in the normal foot forms an angle of about ten degrees with the hoof base?

Coffin Bone

25

When the front toe of the hoof is shaped to dressed with the rasp, in addition to trimming with the nippers of the bottom or ground surface o f the hoof to alter the hoof's angle, it is referred to as what?

Toe/Heel balance

26

Ideally the front feet stand apart the width of what?

The width of the hoof base

27

The hind feet ideally stand apart the width of what?

The fetlock joint

28

Other than the well known parts of the hoof, as the toe, sole, wall, quarter, and bar, what are three other parts of the hoof?

Heel, seat of corn, white line, point of frog, commissure, cleft of frog, buttress of heel, and bulb

29

True or False? If a horse has Paint breeding, it is eligible for Appaloosa registration.

False. It may not have Paint, Pinto, draft, pony, or albino breeding

30

Why is the Welsh Pony a first choice of the family wanting a child's pony?

They are friendly, responsive and dependable

31

In what breed is it normal to notice a rhythmic head nod with each stride?

Tennessee Walking Horse

32

What gait is basically a diagonal gait; the horse will perform this gait by walking in front and trotting behind, with reach in each stride?

The Missouri Fox Trot gait

33

When was the Nez Perce War and what was the significance of this event?

The war was in the late 1800's and the Nez Perce were forced to give up their remaining horses to the soldiers

34

How tall should a Missouri Fox Trotter be?

14-16 hands

35

What type of horse is specially trained to isolate an individual cow in a large herd?

A cutting horse

36

Name the three reasons why individual cows had to be cut from large herds.

For branding, medical treatment, and grouping purposes

37

On what date did the a group of cowboys and ranchers from the National Cutting Horse Association?

On May 1, 1946

38

In modern cutting competition, how long do the horses and rider have to demonstrate their ability to cut cattle and prevent them from returning to the herd?

Two minutes and thirty seconds

39

What does a run content mean?

The performance and showmanship of both the horse and the rider in cutting

40

What are cutting performances evaluated on?

The challenges made by the cattle, the horse's instinctive reaction, errors in judgement made by the horse and rider during competition

41

The successful cutting horse must be quick, agile, intelligent, and what else?

Have a natural gift of cow sense

42

Dressage has its roots in Classical Greek horsemanship, but wasn't recognized as an important equestrian pursuit when?

The Renaissance

43

What is the fundamental purpose of dressage?

To develop through standardized progressive training methods, the horse's natural athletic ability and willingness to perform, maximizing its potential as a riding horse

44

What breed can't be taller than 34inches at the withers to be registered?

American Miniature horse

45

What four parts of the digestive tract make up the foregut?

Mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small intestine

46

What is the ideal slope of the shoulders?

45-50 degrees

47

What is base wide confirmation?

When the horses feet are wider apart at the ground than at the chest

48

What disease has a geographical association with a particular part of the country?

Patomic Horse Fever

49

Name four components of the top line?

Withers, back, loin, and croup

50

List the names of the teeth that make up 12 front teeth known as incisors?

Central Pairs, Intermediate, and Corner Teeth

51

Where are three practical possibilities to keep a horse?

At home, Rent a pasture, or commercial stable

52

Why would you do a pre-purchase exam on a horse you want to buy?

To determine the overall soundness and health of the horse before you buy it

53

What are the 3 patterns that establish the guidelines to define color patterns of a paint horse?

Over, Tobiano, Tovero

54

What part of the horse is located on both inside and outside of the hind legs above the hock?

Gaskin

55

What is the single most important characteristic in equine selection?

Balance

56

Why is balance important in equine selection?

Because it forms the basis for movement, length of stride, and ultimately perfomance

57

What do we call it when a horse's forelimb is too far forward and away for the body?

Camped out

58

What is an insecticide designed to kill fly larva?

Larvicides

59

What is the average temperature range of a horse?

100-101.5F

60

Name two types of Legumes horses eat?

Alfalfa and Clover

61

What is the most commonly used technique for estimating body weight in horses?

Heart Girth Tape

62

What are 3 different types of medical treatments that may be used to treat colic?

Surgery, Stomach tube, mineral oil, fluids, sedatives, and antibiotics

63

Approximately how much hoof growth occurs in a 6 month period?

2.25 inches

64

What part of the hoof protects the internal structures of the foot from injury?

Sole

65

(T/F) The ideally fitted shoe, regardless of design, should spare the maximum bearing surface on the wall and provide a solid base of weight distribution.

True

66

When your horse is tied with a lead rope in a trailer, how should you remove the rope during an emergency?

Cut it with a pocket knife

67

What are 4 environmental needs in providing for the welfare of a horse?

Physical, social, chemical, and biological

68

A period of reproductive dormancy in a mare.

Anestrus

69

What effect will anabolic steroids have on a stallion?

It will severely impair the testicular size and sperm production

70

At what age do you wean a foal?

4-6months

71

(T/F) A donkey possesses a great deal more reasoning power than a horse?

True

72

What is a molecule used to produce muscular activity, it is the basic energy source for muscular contraction?

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

73

What is the study of movement?

Biomechanics

74

What is the breakdown of the energy sources in the absence of oxygen?

Anaerobic

75

What internal parasite primarily affects foals and young horses?

Roundworms

76

(T/F) Influenza is the most common infectious respiratory disease of horses.

True

77

Where are a horse's blind spot?

Directl behind or in front of the horse

78

What insect causes lyme disease?

Ticks

79

What breed is characterized by the flat foot walk, running walk, and rocking chair canter?

Tennessee Walking Horse

80

How many teeth does a young horse have?

24

81

What kind of vision does the horse use to judge distance?

binocular vison

82

What color is a horse with white hairs mixed into a base coat?

Roan

83

Equine Herpes Virus causes what disease?

Rhinopneumonitis

84

What is epistaxis?

Nose bleed or hemorrage fromt he nostrils due to hemorrage in the respiratory tract or guttural pouch

85

How many days is the heat period in mares?

5-7days

86

Which is the more energy dense feed, oats, or corn?

Corn

87

Where specifically would the Galvayne's Groove be located?

At the gum margin of the upper corner incisor

88

A destruction of the frog by anaerobic bacteria resulting in a black and strong smelling infection is called what?

Thrush

89

What color horse has a golden yellow body and a white mane and tail?

Palomino

90

What is the common name for Equine Spinal Ataxia?

Wobbles

91

How many chromosomes pairs does a horse have?

32pairs

92

How many teeth does a young horse have?

24

93

What kind of vision does the horse use to judge distance?

binocular vison

94

What color is a horse with white hairs mixed into a base coat?

Roan

95

Equine Herpes Virus causes what disease?

Rhinopneumonitis

96

What is epistaxis?

Nose bleed or hemorrage fromt he nostrils due to hemorrage in the respiratory tract or guttural pouch

97

How many days is the heat period in mares?

5-7days

98

Which is the more energy dense feed, oats, or corn?

Corn

99

Where specifically would the Galvayne's Groove be located?

At the gum margin of the upper corner incisor

100

A destruction of the frog by anaerobic bacteria resulting in a black and strong smelling infection is called what?

Thrush

101

What color horse has a golden yellow body and a white mane and tail?

Palomino

102

What is the common name for Equine Spinal Ataxia?

Wobbles

103

How many chromosomes pairs does a horse have?

32pairs

104

What breed is readily identified by a finely chiseled head and dished face, long arching neck, high tail carriage, small build?

Arabian

105

How much fecal matter does a horse produce in a 24hr period?

28-50lbs

106

What color is a horse with a yellowish or gold body, black mane and tail, usually black on the lower legs, but no dorsal stripes?

Buckskin

107

What is "floating' with reference to horses?

Rasping or filing sharp points on the horses teeth

108

The horses stomach makes up what percent of the digestive tract?

8%

109

What type of blood cells carry oxygen?

Red blood cells

110

What do I mean when i say,"I'm going to have my horses teeth floated?"

Rasping or filing sharp points on the horses teeth

111

What is a hoof knife used for?

To pare away the dead sole from the hoof, remove ragged parts from the frog, relieve pressure on corns and cracks, and remove foreign bodies from the foot

112

Where does sperm production occur?

Seminiferous tubules

113

What is a more common name for hyperthermia?

Heat stroke

114

What is the widest part of the hoof?

Quarter

115

Name three types of saddles considered "forward seat" saddles?

All purpose, close contact, and dressage

116

What is the key to successful parasite control?

Interrupting the parasite's life cycle

117

What is the horse's primary behavioral characteristic of self protection?

Flight

118

Name four different vaccinations that should be current prior to traveling with your horse?

Encephalomyelitis, Tetanus, Influenza, Rhinopneumonitis, Potamac Horse Fever, Rabies

119

Name the hormone that keeps mares out of estrous and helps to maintain early stages of pregnancy.

Progesterone

120

If you can easily feel a horse's ribs through a thick winter hair coat, what kind of body condition would you find?

A horse that is too thin

121

To provide a safe interior in a horse trailor, what should be on the side walls, partitions, and front of the manager to prevent injuries?

Padding

122

What term describes a preventive injection of bacteria or viruses that have been modified or inactivated to immunize the horse against certain diseases?

Vaccination

123

Name a piece of safety equipment used on horse trailers to prevent the horse from backing out if the door is open

Butt bar or but chain

124

What percent of protein should be in a suckling foal's creep feed?

16-18%

125

What is the incubation time for bot eggs and what stimulates them to hatch?

Incubation-about 5days, Hatch-when the horse licks, breathes on, warms, or ingests them

126

Define the term "cue" as it pertains to horses.

A signal given by the rider/exhibitor that shows or tells the horse what to do

127

Name the horse hair coat color that has a transverse stripe across the horse's withers/shoulders.

Dun or buckskin

128

In training horses, what is a conditioned response?

Response that is learned through practice

129

Where is the home of the American Quarter Horse Association?

Amarillo, Texas

130

Describe two things you can do to help prevent equine encephalomyelitis?

Use insecticides and repellents; eliminate standing water; put screen on stalls; report and outbreak to officials

131

What feature appears on the horse's upper incisors at ten years of age?

Galvayne's Groove

132

What is recommended as the best type of covering for the floor of a horse trailer?

Rubber mats

133

Why would you give your foal two vaccination of tetanus toxoid?

Provide long term active immunity against tetanus

134

How long does the tetanus toxoid vaccination last?

Approximately one year, annual booster required

135

Name the two most important dietary "energy" components in a horses feed

Carbohydrates and fats

136

Name the disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi

Lyme disease

137

If it becomes necessary for you to cut a newborn foal's umbilical cord, how long should you leave the stump?

Two inches

138

What feature of a horse's upper incisors completely disappears after 30yrs of age?

Galvayne's groove

139

What specific part of a bridle prevents injury to the roof of the horse's mouth?

Curb strap or curb chain

140

Name the type of hay that can be infested with blister beetles.

Alfalfa Hay

141

Name one of the major causes of all barn and stable flies

Carelessness of human beings; careless use of smoking materials; lack of fire safety knowledge

142

What type of a cinch would you find on a decker pack saddle?

Center fire rigged, single cinch

143

Name six parts of a western bridle?

Headstall/crown piece; cheek pieces; brow band; throat latch strap; curb strap; bit; reins

144

The average idle 1000lb horse will consume how much water per day?

10-12 gallons

145

Name the major site for bacterial invasion of a newborn foal.

Umbilical cord or navel stump

146

How much space is recommended on either side of the rider's feet when they are placed in the stirrup irons?

1/4 inch on either side of the foot

147

Name the most consistent, natural conditioner for the horse's hooves.

Water

148

Describe four symptoms that indicate that your horse needs to have it's teeth floated

Holds head sideways when chewing; slobbering; sensitive to bit pressure; goes off feed; loses weight

149

What is the name of a canvas used to cover or wrap a pack load?

Manta

150

How many acres of good quality pasture is recommended to feed each mature horse weighing 1000lbs?

2-3 acres each

151

Why would you give your horse tetanus antitoxin?

To provide immediate temporary immunity to an injured horse; if you know or are not horse that the horse has not had a current vaccination

152

According to genetic shorthand, explain the difference between the letters that symbolize the dominant and recessive genes.

Dominant-Upper case or capital letters; Recessive- Lower case

153

What term describes the up-take of ground moisture into a bale of hay causing deterioration of the quality of the hay?

Wicking

154

Name the type of horseshoe used mostly on the hind feet to stabilize the breakover of the foot?

Square-toed shoe

155

Name four types of pack saddle hitches

Single-diamond, double-diamond, half-diamond, squaw, and Arizona

156

When do the deciduous central incisors appear?

They are present at birth or erupt during the first week following the birth

157

What is the recommended minimum size for stallion and foaling stalls?

Minimum 12 by 14feet

158

Name three disadvantages of using straw for bedding horses

Highly combustible; dust causes respiratory problems; horses eating straw can cause problems; high labor costs in stall maintenance; difficult to dispose of

159

Name four breeds of horses that were involved in the development of the Tennessee Walking Horse?

Thoroughbred, standardbred, Morgan, American Saddlebred

160

Name two body types recognized by the American Miniature Horse Association

Arabian and Quarter Horse

161

What term identifies a foal that is born between 300-320 days of gestation?

Premature

162

What is the purpose of a hoof tester?

To determine the location of a painful area in the foot of a lame horse

163

Name the vitamin that is necessary to promote normal growth and development of a horse's hooves?

Vitamin A

164

Name the four stages of the life cycle of the horse fly.

Egg, larvae, pupa, adult

165

Name four things you should look for when you evaluate the conformation of a horse.

1) Consider breed conformation standards 2) tracking the horse for soundness, balance, and action 3) view the front of the horse 4) view the rear of the horse 5) view profile from a distance

166

Why do Arabian horses have long eye lashes?

It is probably an evolutionary characteristic developed to keep desert sand out of their eyes

167

Which group of horses require the most crude protein in their diets: mature horses, pregnant mares, performance horses, or weanlings

Weanlings

168

What is the least glamorous aspect of caring for a horse?

Stall maintenance or cleaning stalls

169

What is the average weight of a small bale of hay?

40-80lbs

170

Name three ways to improve a grass pasture.

Weed control; add lime; soil testing; fertilization; grazing management program

171

Name five features that you would look for when choosing stall bedding for your horse?

Absorbency, dustiness, availability, affordability, ease of disposal, ease of handling, upalatable

172

Name the type of muscle found int he horses skeletal system

Voluntary muscle

173

Name two different types of panniers

Wooden box, rawhide, heavy canvas; canvas and metal

174

Name the three basic hair coat colors that also provide the base for most of the other hair coat colors of the horse.

Bay, Black, Chestnut

175

If a horse has six cheek teeth on each side of its jaws, how many cheek teeth does a horse have?

24

176

Give six symptoms of colic

Restless, sweating, kicking at belly, nipping at belly, pawing, yawning, crouching, rolling

177

What is the advantage of using double rigged cinch on a cross buck pack saddle?

It helps to keep the back cinch from sliding backward

178

Why should mangers in tie stalls be slanted as they descend from top to bottom?

So the horse will not hit its kness

179

Name the type of stall bedding that is the most absorbent of all materials used for bedding?

Peat moss

180

How do horses get rabies?

They are bitten by animals infected with rabbies

181

When a horse's diet is lacking in long stemmed roughage, what vice is this horse likely to develop?

Cribbing

182

Name four of the internal parts of the horse that are affected and damaged by the EIA virus?

Kidneys, liver spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and brain

183

What is the purpose of a pannier?

To carry gear, food, equipment on a pack horse

184

Give two good reasons for why you would take your horses feed and water buckets with you when you travel?

Eating and drinking from familiar containers reduces stress in unfamiliar places, reduces risk of disease from contaminated mangers or water tanks

185

Name another type of saddle besides a decker crossbuck that can be used as a pack saddle

Stock saddle or McClellan Sadle

186

Name the health factor you must consider when you purchase paint or stain for horse stalls or fences.

The paint or stain must be "non-toxic"

187

Hay should be of good quality all of the time but what time of the year is it important that it be especially good?

During the winter months

188

What term describes the mares multiple seasonal estrous cycles?

Polyestrus

189

Describe the conformation defect that predisposes a horse to navicular diesase

short, steep pasterns

190

What period of time during a mare's pregnancy would not be a good time to give dewormer

During the last 30 days of gestation

191

Name three factors that are fundamental to the psychology of horse training

Stimuli; responses; reinforcement

192

What is the distinguishing hair coat color of the golden American Saddlebred?

Body color has a golden hue with a white or flaxen mane and tail

193

Approximately how much water will a mature horse drink in one day?

10-12 gallons

194

Give one example of why you would use a hot poultice on you horse.

To increase blood supply to an injured area. To draw out infection from an abscess or a puncture wound

195

Name the two critical times of the year when there are more barn fires

Winter and Summer

196

Name the major cause of infertility in a mare

Uterine infections

197

Name the sex of the horse that can become a long term carrier of Equine Viral Arteritis

Male(Stallion)

198

What does a farrier put on horseshoes that help to hold the shoes more securely to the horse's hoof?

Clips

199

Name six items that you should include in a trailer first aid kit

Non-stick bandages, bute, leg quilts and wraps, scissors, antiseptic, soap

200

What is the term for how much blood the heart can pump in one minute?

Cardiac Output

201

How do you spell Rhinopneumonitis

r-h-i-n-o-p-n-e-u-m-o-n-i-t-i-s

202

What is endocrinology?

The study of hormones and their effects

203

What are the benefits of using a slant load trailer for the horse?

Horses seem to ride better, experience less stress and are more stable during stating and stopping

204

What causes heat cramps?

Loss of electolytes

205

What is another name for Hunt seat

Forward Seat

206

What is the common name used for shoes having tungsten carbide on a mild steel base?

Borium

207

What vitamin is necessary for the growth and development of normal hooves?

Vitamin A

208

Which hormone do the luteal cells within the corpus hemorrhagicum and corpus luteum secrete?

Progesterone

209

Which lethal genetic defect can result from mating two overo paint horses?

Lethal while foal syndrome

210

How long is a horn fly's life cycle?

Ten days

211

Incisors and cheek teeth continue to erupt until what age?

Into their 20's

212

What is the membranous organ called that connects the fetus to the lining of the uterus?

Placenta

213

What is the most feasible, non-chemical means of breaking the fly life cycle?

Removing breeding material

214

What should be placed under hay bales when storing on cement floors?

Wooden pallets

215

How often should a foal's feet be trimmed?

Once a month and more often if correction is needed

216

Suggest two ways to avoid aggressive behavior when group feeding.

Use separate feeders; space feeders 40-50ft apart; use extra feeders; ensure an open area

217

What are 3 vital signs which should be assessed during an examination of the horse?

Temperature, pulse, respiration, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color and tackiness, and skin pliability

218

Name the four distinguishing characteristics of the Appaloosa.

Spotted coat, either leopard or blanket; mottled skin around the muzzle and genitalia; white scelera around the eyes; vertically striped hooves

219

What is on an English bridle that is not found on a western bridle?

A cavesson or nose band

220

How does leather conditioner work?

Puts back vital oils

221

What effect does excessive phosphorous have on calcium?

Interferes with calcium absorption

222

What feature differentiates roping reins from other reins?

Roping reins are on a continuous strap

223

How many inches taller should the trailer be than the horse's normal resting position of its head?

10inches

224

At what age do the permanent central teeth erupt?

2.5 years of age

225

Of what material are "never-rust" bits and hardware made?

Solid Nickel

226

Give another name for the horses hindgut.

Large Intestine

227

How much crude protein does clover hay contain?

12%

228

Which pack saddle is a centerfire-rigged single cinch with a wooden bar?

Decker

229

Name four of the six parts of the female reproductive tract.

Vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviducts, andovaries

230

What is the best and safest type of wire to use for horse fencing?

Five diamond, V-mesh

231

In training terms, what does the term "trial" mean?

Practice

232

What word is defined as any deviation in structure or function that interferes with the horse's intended use or performance?

Unsoundness

233

What is the purpose of the Jockey Club?

To maintain the American stud book for Thoroughbreds

234

Which type of barn lighting, incandescent or fluorescent, is more energy efficient?

Fluorescent

235

A normal foal weighs what percentage of the mare's body weight?

9-10%

236

What factors affect water requirements?

Work type, work load, weather, and diet

237

What part of a horse's foot provides traction and absorbs shock?

The Frog

238

What year was the Cooperative Extension Service Established?

1914

239

Give 3 benefits of therapeutic riding for handicapped people.

Improved muscle tone, motor control, motor development, posture, coordination, emotional and psychological well being

240

What happens in a hippotherapy session?

The rider is influenced by the horse as the movement of the horse imparts a movement to the rider's pelvis that closely resembles

241

Which state has the largest horse population?

California

242

Who wrote the book "Feeding and Care of the Horse?"

Lon D. Lewis

243

Air contains what percentage of oxygen?

21%

244

What is the primary defense of a horse?

Flight

245

Name three stimuli that trigger the response of shivering.

Cold, fear, and excitement

246

What is the single most important characteristic in equine selection and why?

Balance, because it forms the basis for movement, length of stride, and ultimately performance

247

When an experienced horseman looks into a horse's eye it can tell a great deal about the horse's what?

Potential disposition

248

What are five signs of aging in horses?

Drooping lower lip, swayback, deep hollow above eyes, graying hair, changes in teeth

249

What is the name of the horse who became the Triple Crown winner in 1973?

Secretariat

250

The famous race horse "Man-O-War" won how many of his 22 races?

21