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Horse Quiz Bowl > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (136):
1

What are the five factors that influence digestibility of nutrients in the digestive tract?

1) Type of source of feedstuff 2) Level of maturity 3) Method of processing 4) Quantity 5) Associative effects 6) Frequency of feeding 7) Rate of passage 8) Compounds that interfere with digestibility 9) Individual differences among horses

2

What is a herbivore?

Animals that live primarily on plants

3

What part of the digestive tract is the site for the major portion of nutrient absorption?

The small intestine

4

Where in the horse's body are soluble carbohydrates digested to simple sugars?

The small intestine

5

Where is the primary site of protein digestion?

The small intestine

6

Calcium is absorbed from which intestine?

The small intestine

7

Where are the B vitamins synthesized in the horse?

The large intestine

8

The hind gut for the horse is the site of active microbial digestion of fibrous feeds into what primary energy source for the horse?

Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA)

9

When mature horses with a lower protein requirement are fed alfalfa, the excess protein is broken down and the nitrogen is excreted where?

In the urine as urea

10

Name 4 things a feed tag tells a horseperson.

Weight, brand and company name, product name, directions for use, guaranteed analysis, feed ingredients, precautionary statement, name and address of manufactory.

11

How are ingredients listed on the feed tag?

Largest percentage first and smallest percentage last

12

Name two things the guaranteed analysis tells a horseperson?

Minimum percentage of crude protein, minimum percentage of crude fat, minimum percentage of crude fiber, and minimum percentage of ash

13

How is crude protein calculated?

Measure nitrogen content

14

Nitrogen content of feedstuffs is used to determine protein content of feedstuffs. What is the average percent of nitrogen content of protein?

16%

15

How much of the crude protein is represented by the digestible protein?

75-80%

16

What is the measure of the bulk or fibrous portion of the grain mix consisting of mostly cellulose and lignin?

Crude fiber

17

Name four of the seven "macro" elements required in the diets of horses.

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium, and sulfur

18

True or False? Never feed more than .75% of the body weight at any one feeding.

True

19

True or False? A horse can be fed their total ration of 15lbs of grain per day at one feeding.

False

20

True or False? Horses should be offered frre choice materials.

False

21

Name four types of grains that can be fed to a horse?

Oats, corn, barley, grain sorghum, rye, and wheat

22

What are the two categories of grain processing?

Dry and Wet

23

Name three types of grain processing.

Dry rolling, grinding, crimping, roasting, pelleting, soaking, steam rolling, extruded feeds

24

Does crimping or rolling oats appreciably improve the digestibilty?

NO

25

Which is higer in energy - corn or oats?

Corn

26

True or False? Horses will digest feed better if feedings are spaced equal times throughout a 24hr period.

True

27

Name the categories of commercial manufactured equine feeds.

Textured concentrates, processd concentrates, complete feeds, and supplements

28

What does NDF stand for?

Neutral Detergent fiber

29

Which type of manufactured equine feed is mixd to improve digestibility, feed efficiency and intake?

Processed

30

What is sweet feed?

A grain mix that contains molasses

31

Which type of manufactured equine feed uses molasses mixed with whole grain to improve palatablility?

Textured

32

What is the most common supplemental protein used in horse diets?

Cottonseed meal or soybean meal

33

What is feed that contains the highest quality protein?

Soybean meal

34

What is the preferred plant source protein fed to horses?

Soybean meal

35

Brewers dried grains are high in what nutrients?

Fiber and protein

36

The proper feeding of horses can be divided into what two steps?

1)Knowing the nutritional need of the horse 2) Prividing for this need through the feeding of suitable feedstuffs

37

The horse's nutritional requirements are influenced by what factors?

1) The size of the animal 2) The environment 3) Age 4) Type of use or activity 5) Individual characteristics

38

What is the easiest way to determine whether a horse's enegy needs are being met?

Monitor the body weight of the animal on a regular basis

39

Feeds should always be purchased by what measure?

Weight not volume

40

True or False? Horsemen should feed horses by volume of feedstuff instead of weight.

False

41

What percentage of the feed ingested is needed to provide the animal's enegy needs?

80-90%

42

What type of manufactured equine feed is a combinaiton of concentrates and forages into one product?

Complete

43

True or False? Balanced rations should be supplemented with a protein, vitamin, and/or mineral supplement.

False

44

What is meant by a custom feed mix?

Mix that is prepared by a feed mill according to specifications given to them by a customer

45

True or False? Horses do not require multiple feedings per day if they require 15-20lbs. of concentrate.

False

46

How much time should be allowed when changing physical forms of feeds, such as from a textured feed to a pelleted feed?

5-7 days

47

True or False? Horse owners should not dilute or "cut" balanced rations with cereal grains.

True

48

Do irregular feeding times affect horses' stall behaviors?

yes

49

What one thing should stalled horses receive everyday to maintain optimal eating behavior?

Routine exercise

50

How should concentrate feeds for horses be stored?

In a dry place, free from rodents and insects

51

Name the ways to prevent a horse from eating aggressively.

Deep shallow trough, salt bricks or softball size rock in the trough, or feeding extruded feeds

52

What prominent growth supplement in cattle feed is toxic when fed to horses?

Monensin

53

Excessive ingestion of nitrogen rich compounds such as urea can result in what condition?

Ammonia Toxicosis

54

The craving for unnatural food may result because of a nutrient deficiency. Give 3 examples of unnatural food consumption.

Chewing wood, eating dirt, sand and/or gravel, tail biting, and eating the bark of trees

55

What is the common name for enterotoxemia?

Overeating disease

56

What are protein bumps?

Urticaria or hives caused by feed

57

What condition may result from a deficiency of calcium, phosphorus, or Vitamin D?

Rickets

58

What is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that may be caused by either an excessive or and inadequate iodine intake?

Goiter

59

What condition is caused by not enough calcium to calcify the bone or not enough phosphorus in the diet?

In extremis or rickets

60

What categories of horses have the greatest calcium needs?

Young animals and lactating mares

61

How many days prior to foaling should mares be removed from fungus-infected fescue hay and pasture?

30-90 days

62

What is fed to a foal, beginning a few days after birth, to reduce the stress of weaning?

Grain and hay

63

What is a hay that is considering to be a very good especially for young horses and lactating mares due to its high digestible energy and protein content?

Alfalfa

64

Feeding excessive amounts of what substance to a mare can cause an enlarged thyroid in a foal?

Excess iodine

65

What is the term of providing an area where the foal can eat without interference from the mare?

Creep feeding

66

What must be done for foals to maintain optimal growth rate?

Creep feeding

67

Where should creep feeders be located?

Areas frequently visited by mares, water, shelter, mare feeding area

68

What is the most important consideration when selecting a feed for creep feeding?

Palatability

69

The weanling's ration needed to provide optimum growth rate should consist of a maximum of one-half____ and a minimum of one-half____

Maximum of one-half concentrated and a minimum of one-half roughages

70

Nutrients for the horse in order of their importance and the amount needed are what?

1) Water 2) Those used for energy 3) Protein 4) Calcium 5) Phosphorus 6) Vitamin A 7) Salt

71

What are the five main nutrients?

Water, energy from carbohydrates, and lipids, protein, vitamins and minerals

72

What are four types of nutrients?

Protein, soluble carbohydrates, starch, and fat

73

What are the four major nutrients horses acquire from feed?

Energy, vitamins, protein, minerals

74

The five main nutrients that a horse needs are what?

Water, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals

75

What are the two most important dietary energy components in feeds?

Carbohydrates and fats

76

What are the "building blocks" of protein?

Amino Acids

77

What is protein composed of?

Amino Acids

78

Define an essential amino acid.

It is one that must be supplied in the diet

79

What do the initials TDN stand for?

Total Digestible Nutrients

80

What amino acid is responsible for faster and more efficient growth in young foals?

Lysine

81

Why is molasses added to horse ration?

To reduce dust, improve palatability, and is also a good source of protein

82

What percentage of the horse's body weight needs to be long-stemmed roughage?

Minimum of .75% to 1%

83

How much hay per day is required for the average 1000lbs, idle, mature horse?

15lbs

84

What beetle is found in alfalfa hay?

blister beetles

85

True or False? Alfalfa causes kidney damage due to the high protein content when fed to horses.

False

86

What potential health problem exists when tall fescue is the predominant pasture source?

Fescue toxicosis

87

What are three types of forage processing?

Baled roughages pelleted forages, cubed forages, dehydrated forage, silage

88

What is the most common type of cubed forage?

Alfalfa

89

True or False? Horses fed cubed alfalfa are more likely to chew wood than horses fed pelleted forages.

False

90

True or False? Alfalfa causes kidney damage due to the high protein content when fed to horses.

False

91

What are three reasons horses chew wood?

A lack of roughage, exposure to easily accessible soft wood in stalls, and boredom

92

When a horse's diet is lacking in long stemmed roughage, what vice is likely to develop?

Cribbing

93

How long will feral or free-ranging horses spend a day grazing?

10-12 hours

94

When sampling hay for nutritional analysis, are more samples required if your core sample or grab sample?

Grab sample

95

In reference to the horse, name the different categories of toxic plants.

Salivation inducing plants, Colic and diarrhea inducing plants, Hepatoxic plants, Anemia inducing plants, Sudden death inducing plants, Mechanically injurious plants, Photodermatitis inducing plants, Neurotoxic plants, Lameness and muscle weakness inducing plants

96

What two nutritional elements does a horse need to maintain electrolyte balance?

Good quality roughage and a salt block

97

True or False? Salt should be supplemented free choice?

True

98

On average, about how much salt will the mature horse consume per week?

1/2lbs of salt per week

99

What three classes of horse are of the greatest concern to the nutritionist?

1) The young foal 2) The lactating mare 3) The hard working horse

100

Name the factors that influence a horse's nutritioal needs?

1) Size of animal 2) Age 3) Individual characteristics 4) Enviroment 5) Type of use or activity

101

What is the recommended crude protein level for older horses receiving a maintenance ration?

10%

102

What is the recommended protein content of the equine athelete's total diet dry matter?

Between 10-16%

103

Why might it be advantageous to add yeast culture to the diet of older horses?

Date indicates that it increases digestion of fiber in the lower gastrointestinal tract

104

What is the only vitamin that may be inadequate in rations routinely fed to the horse?

Vitamin A

105

What vitamin is necessary for the growth and development of normal hooves?

Vitamin A

106

What is tocopherol?

Vitamin E

107

Which vitamin in high levels has been shouwn to increase the animals' immunity to infectious diseases?

Vitamin E

108

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A,D,E, and K

109

Where are the fat solule vitamins absorbed?

The small intestine

110

Blood cannot stop clotting without what vitamin?

Vitamin K

111

How many mineral elements are required in the diets of horses?

21

112

What 2 minerals are horses more likely to suffer a lack of?

Calcium and Phosphorus

113

What mineral is necessary for bone formation?

Calcium and Phosphorus

114

What is the most important nutrient in the horse's diet?

Water

115

On average, how many gallons of water will a 1000lb horse consume per day?

10 gallons

116

How many gallons of water does a mature idle 1100lb horse drink per day?

10-12 gallons

117

How much water per 100lbs of body weight per day is needed by the horse in a cool environment at rest?

.5-.6 gallons per 100lbs of body weight per day

118

Cold water given to a hot, tired horse may cause what two things?

Colic and founder

119

On a long trip how often should water be offered?

Every 3-4hrs

120

The best indicator of water quality is found in the amount of what substance in the water?

TDS( Total Dissolved Solids)

121

What is the total dissolved solids value?

The sum of the concentration of all constituents dissolved in water

122

In what three forms are roughages fed to horses?

Hay, silage, or pasture

123

What are silages and haylages?

Fermented forages stored under anaerobic conditions, usually a silo

124

What is the most important winter feed given to horses?

Good Quality Hay

125

Hay can be stored from 1-2yrs without losing what percentage of its nutrients?

15-20%

126

What vitamin A pre-cursor is greater when hay is green?

Beta- cartotene

127

What are 3 criteria of good quality hay?

1)Lack of mold 2) Lack of excess weathering 3) Leafiness and lack of stems 4) Nutrition value 5)Age at harvesting

128

As the growing plant matures, the amount of cellulose and lignin increases and what happens to the digestibility?

It decreases

129

What are the two basic classifications of forages?

Legumes and grasses

130

Give three examples of legume hay.

Alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, clover, cowpea, lespedeza, soybean

131

Give three examples of grass or cereal hay.

Bermuda grass, rye grass, and timothy

132

Name three types of grasses for horses.

Bermuda grass, orchard grass, timothy

133

What two major factors affect the amount of protein in hay?

Plant type and stage of maturity at time of harvest

134

When hay is exposed to the sun, the outer edge can become bleached and will lose color and some of what vitamin?

Vitamin A

135

In reference to hay what part of the plaint is the least digestible for a horse?

The stems

136

What are two types of legumes commonly fed to horses?

Alfalfa, and red, white or crimson clover