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How would you anatomically describe the kidneys?

Paired retroperitoneal organs situated in the posterior part of the abdomen, and on each side of the vertebral column.


What is the anatomical location of the kidneys?

Upper pole of each kidney is opposite the twelfth thoracic vertebra, and lower pole is opposite the second or thoird lumbar vertebra with the right kidney more caudal.


What is the normal size of the kidney?

Approx 11-12 cm in length 5.0-7.5 in width and 2.5-3.0 cm in thickness


What are some of the anterior anatomical relations of the left kidney?

The supradrenal gland, the spleen the stomach, the left colic flexure and the jejunum


What are some of the anatomical relations of the posteiror kidney?

The diaphram, the 11th and 12th ribs, the psoas major, the quardartu lumrum and the tranversus abdominus muscles.


What are some of the anterior relations of the right kidney?

The supradrenal gland, the liver the duodenum and the right colic flexure


What are some of the posterior anatomical relations of the right kidney?

Diapthram the 12th rib, the psoas major, the quadratus lumrum and the traversus abdominius muscles


What is the different between paranephric fat and perinephric fat?

Perinephric fat is around the kidney whereas paranephric fat is around the kidney fascia


Where does the renal atery enter the kidney?

The Hilium


What is the sequence of blood vessels found in the kidney?

Renal atery - Segmental artery - Interlobar ateries (each side of the renal pyramid)- acrute ateries- interlobular ateries- efferent arterioles (in a Perittubular network)- glomeruli


What is the drainage of the kidneys?

The paillae drain into the minor calcyces, which drain into the major calcyes


Where do the renal calcyes drain?

The renal pelvis


What does a renal sinus contain?

Blood vessels


What are some of the structural features of the ureters?

Two thick tubes which act to transport urine, each about 25 cm long, smooth muscle in them contracts to produce peristalic waves, which propels urine towards the bladder..


Describe some of the locational features of the ureters?

Go from retroperitoneal to peritoneal at the pelvic rim,


Where are the three most common areas in the ureter for obstructions?

The uteropelvic junction, the pelvic rim and where the ureter enters the bladder.


What is the most common cause of trauma to the ureters?

Uteres run under the uterine Atery and so in a hysterectomy the ureteris could be damaged as the uteric atery is closed


What is the ligament associated with the bladder?

The median umbilical ligament


What is the trigone in the bladder?

The area which is smoother (contains no rugae) and where the orifices are found


What are the two spinchters controlling the outflow of urine?

The internal and external urethral spinchters


What is the specalised smooth muscle found in the bladder?

The detrusor muscle


What are the different nerve supplies to the bladder?

Sympatheic is the hypogastric nerve (T12-L2), Parasympathic is the pelvic nerve(S2-S4) and the rest is supplied by the pedudal nerve.


What are the differing types of structure within the prostate gland?

2/3 is glandular and 1/3 is fibromuscular


What is the aterial supply of the prostate gland?

The prostatic ateries help to provide the blood supply


What are the four areas of the male urethra?

The pre-prostatic, the prostatic, the membranous and the spongy urethra


What are the two angles in the male urethra?

The prepubic and the infrapubic angles


What are the two surfaces the female urethra passess through?

The perineal membrane and the pelvic floor


Where does the ureter cross the pelvic brim?

At the level of the sacroiliac joint, anterior to the bifurcation of the common iliac artery to pierce the inferior surface of the bladder


Where does the ureter enter the bladder?

The posteriolateral surface


What structures does the ureter pass around in males?

Passes under the ductus deferens and the seminal vessels