Flashcards in Maligancy Of The Urianry Tract Deck (20)
What are some of the risk factors for prostate cancer =?
Increasing age, family history, BRAC2 gene mutation, and ethniticy.
What is the usual diagnostic pathway for a patient with suspected prostate cancer?
There is a digital rectal exam, and the a serum prostate specific antigen is performed, and then a TRUS a transrectal ultrasound guided biopd of the protate, or may be discovered accidently after loer urianry tract symptoms
What are the things that you would think about before starting a treatment for prostate cancer?
Age, a digital rectal exam to determined whether anything is localised, locally advanced or adcance, a MRI and bone scan to look for any metases, and bioposies including giving a gleeson grade for their tumour
What would be some of the treatment options for a localsied prostate tumour?
Surviellence a robotic radical porsetomy, radiothearpy using a low dose internal beam
What are some of the treatment options for a locally advanced tumour>=?
Survellience and low dose hormones
What are some of the treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer?
Hormones +/_ chemothearpy, palltvie chemothearpy or bisphosphates, medical or surgical castriation such as LHRH anatagonists
How would you an examine for a maligancy of the urinary tract?
BP, adominal massess, varicolece, Leg swelling and assessing the prostate via a DRE
What are the paticular features of a history that you would use in a malignacny of the urianary tract?
Smoking, occupation, painful or painless other LUTS, and family history
What are some of the investigations that you may perform if you suspect a lower urianry tract maligancy?
Blood, including U and Es and FBD and ultrasound
What are some of the possible differential diagnoses of haemoturia?
Urological includes cancers such as advanced prostate carinoma, renal cell carinoc, bladder cancer, upper cell transitational cell carcinoma, and other causes such as stones infection and inflammtion and neprholgical causes such as glomeular defects
What is the common histology of bladder cancer?
90% are transitional cell carcinoma
What are some of the risk factors for bladder cancer
Smoking, working in rubber of plastics manufacuture, or schistomasis exposure in egypt
What are the intial treatments that you would use in a bladder cancer?
Transurtheral resection of a bladder tumour, superfical TURBT and there is a seperate deep TURBT of the muscle
What might be some of the treatements that you would use if the bladder cancer is muscle invasive?
Neoadjuvant chemothearpy, whcih may be combined with a radical cystecomy
What might some of the causes of a renal cell carcinoma be?
Smoking, obesity and dialysis
What are some of the ways that a renal cancer may spread?
Perinephric spread, lymph node metases, IVC spread to the right atrium
What are some of the treatments for a localsied renal carcinoma>
For a established tumour these would include surveelince, radiacl nephroctemony, and polynephtis, and albation
What are some of the pallative treatments that you may use in a metasised renal carcinoma>
Molecular and genetic targeted thearpies
What is the aetiogloy of a upper tract transitional cell carinoma?
Smokin, phenocytin abuse, and bathens nephropathy