Anatomy and Physiology Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Part 1 Deck (141):
1

abdominal

anterior body trunk inferior to ribs

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anatomy

the study of body structure

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cell

the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

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circulatory

System is the transport and delivery system of the body

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digestive

breaks down food into units that can be absorbed by the body

6

endocrine

the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect

7

excretory

removes waste from the body

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integumentary

provides a protective barrier for the body, contains sensory receptors for pain, touch, temperature

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lymphatic

returns fluid to cardiovascular system, detects, filters, and eliminates disease causing organisms.

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muscular

moves bones and maintains posture

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nervous

controls cell function with electrical signals

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organ

a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

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physiology

the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms

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reproductive

producing new life or offspring

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respiratory

adds oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide from blood.

16

skeletal

protects major organs, provides levers and support for body movement

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system

a group of physiologically or anatomically related organs or parts

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thoracic

pertaining to the chest

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tissue

a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function

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urinary

of or relating to the function or production or secretion of urine

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cell membrane

Outer, protective, semipermeable covering of a cell

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centrosome

That area of cell cytoplasm that contains two centrioles; important in reproduction of the cell

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chromatin

complex of macromolecules in the nucleus of a cell that contains DNA, RNA, and proteins; condenses into chromosomes during replication

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connective tissue

body tissue that connects, supports, or binds body organs

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cytoplasm

the fluid inside a cell; contains water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and salts

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dehydration

insufficient amounts of fluid in the tissues

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edema

swelling; excess amount of fluid in the tissues

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endoplasmic reticulum

fine network of tubular structures in the cytoplasm of a cell; allows for the transport of materials in and out of the nucleus and aids in the synthesis and storage of protein

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epithelial tissue

tissue that forms the skin and parts of the secreting glands, and that lines the body cavities

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Golgi apparatus

that structure in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell

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lysosomes

those structures in the cytoplasm of a cell that contain digestive enzymes to digest and destroy old cells, bacteria, and foreign matter.

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meiosis

the process of cell division that occurs in gametes, or sex cells

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mitochondria

those structures in a cell that provide energy and are involved in the metabolism of the cell

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mitosis

process of asexual reproduction by which cells divide into two identical cells

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muscle tissue

body tissue composed of fibers that produce movement

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nerve tissue

body tissue that conducts or transmits impulses throughout the body

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nucleolus

the spherical body in the nucleus of a cell that is important in reproduction of the cell

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nucleus

the structure in a cell that controls cell activities such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction

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organelles

structures in the cytoplasm of a cell, including the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, and Golgi apparatus

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pathophysiology

Study of biological and physical manifestation of disease

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pinocytic vesicles

pocket like folds found in the cell membrane, allow large molecules such as proteins and fat to enter the cell

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protoplasm

thick, viscous substance that is the physical basis of all living things

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abdominal cavity

space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen

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abdominal regions

right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, left lower quadrant, and right lower quadrant

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anterior

before or in front of

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body cavities

Spaces within the body that contain vital organs.

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body planes

reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts

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caudal

pertaining to any tail or tail-like structure

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cranial

pertaining to the skull

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cranial cavity

Contains the brain

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distal

most distant or farthest from the trunk; center or middle

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dorsal

pertaining to the back; in back of

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dorsal cavity

cavity along the posterior side of the body made of the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity

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frontal plane

vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions

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inferior

below; under

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lateral

pertaining to the side

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medial

pertaining to the middle or midline

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midsagittal plane

an imaginary lien drawn down the midline of the body to divide the body into a right side and a left side

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pelvic cavity

the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera

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posterior

toward the back; behind

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proximal

closest to the point of attachment or area of reference

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spinal cavity

contains the spinal cord

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superior

above, on top of, or higher than

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thoracic cavity

contains the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart

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transverse plane

imaginary line drawn through the body to separate the body into a top half and a bottom half

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ventral

pertaining to the front, or anterior, part of the body; in front of

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ventral cavity

contains the structures within the chest and abdomen

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constrict

to contract or narrow; to make smaller

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crusts

a scab; outer covering or coat

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cyanosis

bluish color of the skin, nail beds, and/or lips due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood

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dermis

the skin

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dilate

enlarge or expand; to make bigger

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epidermis

the outer layer of the skin

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erythema

redness of the skin

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integumentary

pertaining to the skin or a covering

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jaundice

yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes, frequently caused by liver or gallbladder disease

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macules

a discolored but neither raised nor depressed spot or area on the skin

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papules

solid, elevated spot or area on the skin

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pustules

small, elevated, pus- or lymph-filled area of the skin

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sebaceous glands

oil-secreting gland of the skin

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subcutaneous fascia

layer of tissue that is under the skin and connects the skin to muscles and underlying tissues

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sudoriferous glands

sweat-secreting gland of the skin

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vesicles

blister; a sac full of water or tissue fluid

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wheals

itchy, elevated areas with an irregular shape; insect bites and hives

85

appendicular skeleton

the bones that form the limbs or extremities of the body

86

axial skeleton

the bones of the skill, rib cage, and spinal column; the bones that form the trunk of the body

87

carpals

bone of the wrist

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clavicles

collarbone

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diaphysis

the shaft, or middle section, of a long bone

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endosteum

membrane lining the medullary canal of a bone

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femur

thigh bone of the leg; the longest and strongest bone in the body

92

fibula

outer and smaller bone of the lower leg

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fontanels

a soft, membrane-covered space between the bones at the front and the back of a newborn's skull

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foramina

a passage or opening; a hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass

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humerus

long bone of the upper arm

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ligaments

fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone

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medullary canal

inner, or central, portion of a long bone

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metacarpals

bone of the hand between the wrist and each finger

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metatarsals

bone of the foot between the instep and each toe

100

os coxae

the hipbone; formed by the union of the ilium, ischium, and pubis

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patella

the kneecap

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periosteum

fibrous membrane that covers the bones except at joint areas

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phalanges

bones of the fingers and toes

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radius

long bone of the forearm, between the wrist and elbow

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red marrow

soft tissue in the epiphyses of long bones

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scapula

shoulder blade or bone

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tarsals

one of seven bones that forms the instep of the foot

108

tibia

inner and larger bone of the lower leg, between the knee and ankle

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ulna

long bone in the forearm, between the wrist and elbow

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vertebrae

bones of the spinal column

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yellow marrow

soft tissue in the diaphyses of long bones

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abduction

movement away from the midline

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adduction

movement towards the midline

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cardiac muscle

Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart

115

contractability

the ability to shorten forcibly

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contracture

tightening or shortening of a muscle

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elasticity

the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

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excitability

ability to respond to stimuli

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extensibility

ability to be stretched

120

extension

increasing the angle between two parts; straightening a limb

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fascia

fibrous membrane covering, supporting, and separating muscles

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flexion

decreasing the angle between two parts; bending a limb

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insertion

end or area of a muscle that moves when the muscle contracts

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involuntary

independent action not controlled by choice or desire

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muscle tone

state of partial muscle contraction providing a state of readiness to act

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origin

end or area of a muscle that remains stationary when the muscle contracts

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rotation

movement around a central axis; a turning

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skeletal muscle

Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons

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tendons

fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bones

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visceral muscle

muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle

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voluntary

under one's control; done by one's choice or desire

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aortic valve

flap or cusp located between the left ventricle of the heart and the aorta

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arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

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blood

fluid that circulates through the vessels in the body to carry substances to all body parts

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capillaries

blood vessel that connects arterioles and venues and allows for exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and the body cells

136

diastole

period of relaxation of the heart

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endocardium

serous membrane lining of the heart

138

erythrocytes

red blood cell

139

hemoglobin

the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells; serves to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues

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left atrium

the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins

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left ventricle

pumps oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body