History and Trends Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > History and Trends > Flashcards

Flashcards in History and Trends Deck (24):

Morphine (opium)

from a poppy plant, used to treat severe pain, highly addictive



from the foxglove plant, used to strengthen and slow the heart rate



from the bark of the cinchona tree, is used to treat fever and relieves muscle spasm, also prevents malaria


Belladonna (Atropopine)

from the poisonus night shade plant, relieves stomach pain.


Primitive Times (4000BC-3000BC)

· Belief that illness was punishment from Gods & Demons · Religion played an important part in health care during this time · Dissection was not permitted so exploring the structure of the body was limited · First physicians were witch doctors, tribal doctors, Shaman, or medicine men. (treated illness with ceremonies ex: exorcisms) · People were superstitious · Herbs & plants used as medicine - Foxglove leaves could be chewed to strengthen & slow down the heart · Foxglove is now given through IV, pills, or injections · Average life span: 20 years · Trepanation- o One of the first surgeries o A hole would be cut into the skull to release demons o This was believed to cure disease. (This often resulted in death)


Ancient Chinese (1700BC-AD220)

· Strong belief to cure the entire spirit & nourish the body · Used holistic health methods (treating the mind, body, & soul) · Used therapies such as acupuncture


Egyptians (3000BC-300BC)

· Wrote the first accurate health records · Prescriptions were written on papyrus · Temples were used for worships, medical schools, & hospitals · Priest were doctors · Embalming led to underst&ing of anatomy & disease · Embalming was done by priest · Gauze used to wrap bodies is much like the gauze used today · Most people could not read · Used bloodletting & leeches as medical treatments o Using leeches to suck out the 'bad' blood


Ancient Greeks (1200BC-200BC)

· Hippocrates' knowledge of anatomy & physiology based on observation · Learned that disease is caused by natural cause & not demons · 1st to use massage & art therapy · Stressed that a good diet & cleanliness prevented disease


Ancient Romans (753BC-AD410)

· Developed sanitation systems (eg: sewers) · Created first hospitals · Cause of diseases still unknown & treatment is limited · Simple infections killed many · Average life span 25-30 years


Leonardo da Vinci

First to study and record the human body through pictures and paintings. He was a scientist, inventor, and artist. Born in Vinci, Italy on APril 15th, 1452.


William Harvey

Discovered the circulation of blood and the role of the heart in propelling it. Harvey developed an accurate theory of how the heart and ciculatory system operated. He speculated that humans and animals reproduced through the joining of an egg.


Anton van Leeuwenhoek

invented the microscope.



Father of medicine. Created Hippocratic oath.


Edward Jenner

Discovered the small pox vacine.


Rene TH Laennec

Invented the stethoscope (lay a neck).


Joeseph Priestly

Isolated oxygen by heating mercuric oxide.


Benjamin Franklin

Invented bifocals. Created a catheter.


Elizabeth Blackwell

First female physician in the USA. 1849


Florence Nightingale

Established sanitary nursing care units. Founder of modern nursing. began professional education of nursing.


Joseph Lister

First to use antiseptic.


Louis Pasteur

Father of microbiology. Pasteurization.


Ignaz Semmelweis

Identified cause of childbed fever. Emphasized doctor cleanliness.


Robert Koch

Proved Pasteur's theory of germs. Discovered rats cause the black plague.


Paul Ehrlich

Discovered first cure for syphilis.