Flashcards in Robert's Rules of Order Part 1 Deck (162):
This type of voting is done by a person who is not in attendance at the meeting. The bylaws must expressly authorize this action before it is allowed.
To verbally refrain from voting. Frequently the reason for abstaining is a conflict of interest.
The result of abstaining from voting. Because the abstention is not voting, it does not count as a vote cast.
To adopt or approve a motion or report. The effect of accepting a report is the assembly endorses the report in its entirety, every word of it.
An election by unanimous consent.
A special committee. The term comes from a Latin term meaning "to this" and refers to a committee formed for a particular purpose.
adhering to the motion
A motion is considered adhering to the motion if it is made while the motion it is adhering to is pending. For example, a main motion is made. While it is being discussed, an Amendment is made to that Main Motion. The Amendment is adhering to the Main Motion. Adhering motions remain connected to the main motion even if the motion is interrupted, Referred, Postponed, or temporarily disposed of.
A motion to close the meeting.
A meeting that is a continuation of a previous meeting. It occurs when the work was not completed at a regular or special meeting and there was a motion to continue the meeting at a different time. The original meeting and the adjourned meeting make up a single session. Because it is a continuation of a previous meeting, special notice of the meeting doesn't need to be sent to the membership. The adjourned meeting begins on the agenda where the meeting it is continuing left off.
adjournment sine die
A Latin term which means "without day." It is the final adjournment of an assembly. The last meeting of the convention is said to be an adjournment sine die.
While not a parliamentary term, this term refers to the time period in which the officers remains in office without need for re-election.
A vote in favor of the adoption of the motion.
A predetermined sequence of items of business to be covered at a specific meeting; an order of business. The prescribed agenda for organizations that have regular meetings at least quarterly and have RRoO as their parliamentary authority is: approval of minutes; reports of officers, boards, and standing committees; reports of special committees; special orders; unfinished business and general orders; and new business.
A member authorized to substitute for another member.
A motion to modify the pending motion before it is voted on.
Amend by adding
One of the forms of a motion to Amend. This form places a word, consecutive words, or a paragraph at the end of a motion.
Amend by inserting
One of the forms of a motion to Amend. This form places a word, consecutive words, or a paragraph in the beginning or the middle of a motion.
Amend by striking out
One of the forms of a motion to Amend. This form takes out a word, consecutive words, or a paragraph in a motion.
Amend by striking out and inserting
One of the forms of a motion to Amend. This form strikes out a word or consecutive words and inserts a word or consecutive words in its place.
Amend by substituting
One of the forms of a motion to Amend. This form strikes out a paragraph or more and inserts another paragraph or more.
Amend Something Previously Adopted
A motion that allows the assembly to change an action previously taken. This motion can be applied to a motion adopted at a previous meeting provided that none of the action involved has been carried out in a way that is too late to undo.
When a motion is amendable, it can be modified during the time it is pending (Step 4).
A motion that proposes a change to the wording of a pending motion.
American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP)
The professional organization of parliamentarians that emphasizes knowledge of RRoO, Sturgis, and other parliamentary authorities.
announcement of the vote
The sixth step in the processing of a motion. In a complete announcement, the chair states the following: the results of the vote, declaration of whether the motion passed or failed, the effect of the vote, and the next item of business.
A meeting held yearly usually for the purpose of electing officers and receiving the annual reports of current officers and committees. The annual meeting is usually specified in the bylaws. You may also find in the bylaws what business can be brought up at the annual meeting as well as whether the annual meeting is considered a regular meeting, thus having the flexibility of a regular meeting. Sometimes certain subjects, for example, Bylaw Amendments, can only be acted on at the annual meeting.
annual meeting rules
These are rules that are adopted for a single meeting and may include parliamentary rules.
Appeal from the Decision of the Chair (Appeal)
A motion to take a decision regarding parliamentary procedure out of the hands of the presiding officer and place the final decision in the hands of the assembly.
To name or assign a person to an office, a position, or a committee.
articles of incorporation
May also be referred to as the corporate charter. It's the legal instrument required by the state to incorporate an organization.
A group of people meeting together to openly discuss issues and make decisions that then become the decision of the group. Also referred to as a deliberative assembly.
A fee that is imposed on the members. It must be specifically authorized in the bylaws.
Electronic meetings that occur with the participants in different places at different times. Venues of asynchronous meetings include, but are not limited to, e-mail, e-mail list groups, and fax. Also referred to as non-synchronistic meetings.
attendance via a communication method
There are various methods by which a person can attend a meeting electronically, but only as specifically authorized in the bylaws. For example, if a member must miss a meeting because they physically cannot be in the meeting room, then some bylaws authorize that person to attend by video or audioconferencing methods. Unless the bylaws indicate otherwise, that person is considered in attendance at that meeting.
An examination and verification of the financial records of the association. Depending upon the size of the organization, an audit may be required by federal or state law. The size of the organization also determines whether the audit can be done by an internal group, usually referred to as the audit committee, or an external, independent auditor.
Word frequently used in a voice vote to vote in the affirmative. For example, "All those in favor of the motion, say aye."
A method of voting in which ballots, usually pieces of paper, are passed out to each voting member, the member fills in the ballot, and the ballot is collected. Instructions from the chair might be: "Please mark your ballots clearly, fold them one time, and hand them directly to a teller."
board of directors
A specified group of members who make decisions on behalf of the organization. The membership, authority, and limitations of this group are specified in the bylaws. Meetings of the board are usually only open to members of the board and their invitees.
board of directors meeting
Because it takes a lot to run an organization, and all the members do not have a tremendous amount of time to devote to the organization, the members give some of the responsibilities of running the organization to a group of people frequently referred to as the board of directors. Thus, the board meeting is a meeting of a specified group of members who make decisions on behalf of the organization. The membership, authority, and limitations of this group are specified in the bylaws. Because this group has been given total authority over specific aspects of the organization, meetings of the board are usually only open to members of the board and their invitees and the meetings are usually held in executive session.
The itemized estimate of income and disbursements.
An item or matter brought up at a meeting in the form of a motion, for action by the assembly.
A governing document that, when used without a constitution, comprises the highest body of rules of the organization except rules from a higher governing authority, such as a parent body or laws. In the ______, an organization is free to adopt any rules it may wish, subject to higher governing authority such as a parent body or laws, even rules deviating from the organization's established parliamentary authority.
Call for the Orders of the Day
By the use of this motion, a single member can require the assembly to follow the order of business or agenda, or to take up a special order that is scheduled to come up, unless two-thirds of the assembly wish to do otherwise.
call of the house
This is used only in bodies that have the legal power to compel the attendance of their members, such as legislative bodies. This motion requires the unexcused absent members to be brought to the meeting, following the established procedures.
call of the meeting
The official notice of a meeting given to all members of the organization.
call the roll
A method of taking a vote or of determining attendance of members in which each member's name is called out and members publicly announce their vote or their presence.
call up the motion to Reconsider
The motion to Reconsider can be divided into the making of the motion and the actual consideration of the motion, referring to as calling up. Words used: "Mr. President, I call up the motion to Reconsider the vote on the motion..." Also called Making the Motion to Reconsider.
Another term for a special meeting.
calling a member to order
An order from the presiding officer to a member to stop an inappropriate action and be seated. If the presiding officer does not call to order a member behaving inappropriately, another member may ____ that calling a member to order.
A meeting to plan strategy toward a particular issue or motion.
A motion to reprimand or admonish a member. The only consequence of this motion is the admonishment or reprimand.
The person who is in charge of the meeting. Presiding officer and chair are interchangeable terms. They both are sometimes used to refer to the president of the organization when the president is conducting the meeting.
A document issued by a parent organization authorizing the establishment of a subordinate unit.
Termination of Step 4 in the processing of the motion. It occurs when the chair ends debate because no one else wants to speak, or with the adoption of the Previous Question motion.
This is a motion that puts an end to nominations. The motion is out of order if any member is seeking the floor to nominate a candidate: this motion should not be used. Instead, when there is no one seeking the floor to nominate a candidate, the chair should close nominations, without a motion.
Commit/Refer to a Committee
This motion sends the Main Motion to a smaller group (a committee) for further examination and refinement before the body votes on it. Be sure to be specific which committee, size of committee, and so on.
A group of one or more persons who are appointed or elected to carry out a charge. The charge can be to investigate, to recommend, or to take action.
The larger group frequently assigns specific tasks to a committee. When they assign the task, they usually give the committee a specified level of authority to carry out the task. That authority may be to research the subject and make a recommendation to the larger group or it may be to make a decision for the larger group and carry out that decision. That group comes together to meet and, based on the authority given them, takes the action directed by the larger group.
committee of the whole
The entire assembly acts as a committee to discuss a motion or issue more informally. The presiding officer vacates the chair and another member is appointed to serve as chairman. This motion is usually reserved for large assemblies, particularly legislative bodies.
An official statement that is formally adopted by a majority vote of the committee and that is presented to the parent body (either the entire membership or the board of directors) in the name of the committee. It contains information obtained, information regarding action taken, or recommendations on behalf of the committee.
conflict of interest
A situation in which a member has a direct personal interest not common to the other members.
consent agenda/consent calendar
An agenda category that includes a list of routine, uncontroversial items that are approved with one motion, no discussion, and one vote.
Consideration by Paragraph/Seriatim
The effect of this motion is to debate and Amend a long motion paragraph by paragraph. The vote is taken on the whole motion after consideration of each paragraph separately.
consideration of a question
The discussion that occurs during Step 4 of the processing of a motion, while the motion is pending.
Organizations, particularly national organizations, are frequently made up of units at regional, state, or local levels that are referred to as constituent units. The bylaws should establish their relationship within the organization's structure.
A governing document that contains the highest body of rules of the organization, except rules from a higher governing authority, such as a parent body or laws. Some organizations have both a constitution and bylaws, but the single bylaws document is recommended.
A term interchangeable with adjourned meeting.
To initiate a meeting by calling the meeting to order.
An assembly of delegates usually chosen for one session. The participants frequently attend as representatives of a local, state, or regional association. The convention participants come together to make decisions on behalf of the entire organization. Some smaller organizations give all members the right to attend the convention as voting members. Thus, the voting members of the convention are the individual members of the organization who are registered and attend the convention.
convention standing rules
These are rules that are adopted for a single meeting or series of meetings and may include parliamentary rules.
A legal document that includes the name and object of the organization in compliance with state statutes for the state in which the organization is incorporated. It may also be referred to as the articles of incorporation.
An officer who is responsible for the general correspondence of the organization.
A method of voting in which the members express their vote by standing or raising their hand and then those standing or with their hands raised are counted and the number is reported to the presiding officer. "Those in favor of the motion, please stand and remain standing until counted. [pause] You may be seated. Those opposed to the motion, please stand and remain standing until counted. [pause] You may be seated."
Certified Parliamentarian through the American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP). To become a __, a person must pass a written examination that covers the rules in various parliamentary authorities and must earn service points.
Certified Professional Parliamentarian through the American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP). To become a CPP, a person must pass a rigorous oral examination and demonstrate expertise in presiding.
Certified Professional Teacher of Parliamentary Procedure through American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP). In addition to being a CPP, the person must complete a teacher education course and must show evidence of successful teaching experience.
Certified Teacher of Parliamentary Procedure through American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP). In addition to being a CP, the person must complete a teacher education course and must show evidence of successful teaching experience.
Create a Blank
A method used to change a motion that allows an unlimited number of choices for a specific portion of a motion to be considered at the same time. For example, if the motion is to purchase an item for $50.00 and there are several choices on the amount of money to spend, a member could first move to strike $50.00 and create a blank. If that motion is adopted, then members could list any number of recommendations for the amount of money. The body votes on those recommendations one at a time, in a specified order, until one receives a majority vote and thus fills the blank. Then the Main Motion of the purchase is voted on.
A certificate that shows a person is authorized to serve as a delegate or alternate delegate or a representative of a specific body.
The committee that has the duty to certify the credentialed delegates or members and report that number to the membership. That number then becomes the highest number of votes that can be cast at the meeting.
A voting method used when there are multiple positions or propositions and each member may cast a vote multiplied by that number of positions or propositions. The member may assign those votes however he or she chooses among the various positions or propositions, including multiple votes to one position or proposition. In order to be used, this method of voting must be specifically authorized in the bylaws or the state statutes.
A long established practice of an organization. If a custom is found to be in violation of the organization's bylaws, rules, or parliamentary authority, and a member challenges that, the custom must cease.
A nominee who many not be the first choice of most, but on whom most may prefer to agree.
When a motion is debatable, the members may discuss it during Step 4 of the processing of the motion. Undebatable motions must skip Step 4 and go immediately to the vote on the motion.
The discussion of a motion that occurs after the presiding officer has restated the motion and before putting it to a vote.
To conduct oneself in a proper manner. Usually refers to debate, as in decorum in debate.
decorum in debate
Appropriate behavior during debate. RRoO lists nine such debate rules, including not attacking another member's motives, addressing comments through the chair, and so on.
Using specific motions to delay action on a motion.
In organizations that are large and/or spread throughout the country or the world, it's not practical for all the memberships to come together for a meeting. To still maintain decision-making that represents the membership, this type of organization may have delegates who come together and meet on behalf of the entire organization. The participants frequently attend as representatives of a local, state, or regional association. The convention participants come together to make decisions on behalf of the entire organization.
A group of people, meeting together to openly discuss issues and make decisions that then become the decision of the group.
A motion, action, or statement that's purpose is to delay action. It is an attempt to obstruct the will of the assembly.
Discharge a Committee
A motion that relieves a committee from further consideration of the task that has been assigned to it.
An organization has a right to make and enforce rules, and to require members to refrain from conduct that hurts the organization. Therefore a society has a right to discipline its members, following very specific procedures that are outlined in RRoO.
Debate that occurs after the presiding officer restates the motion and before the vote is taken on the motion.
Dispense With the Reading of the Minutes
This motion, if adopted, delays the reading of the minutes to a later time in the meeting. In most contemporary organizations, the minutes are distributed in advance of the meeting and, therefore, there is no need to read them at the meeting.
Action on a motion that removes it from consideration by the assembly. A motion is considered permanently dispose of when it has been approved or defeated by vote of the assembly.
Division of the Assembly
The effect of this motion is to require a standing vote (not a counted vote). A single member can demand this if he/she feels the vote is too close to declare or is unrepresentative. This motion can only be used after the voice vote or show of hands vote where there is reasonable doubt of the results.
Division of the Question
This motion is used to separate a Main Motion or Amendment into parts to be voted on individually. It can only be used if each part can stand as a separate question.
entertain a motion
A request, usually from the presiding officer, for a formal motion on the subject under discussion.
A term usually synonymous with board of directors or board of trustees.
An executive committee is to the board of directors what the board of directors is to the membership. It is a smaller group, usually the officers, who are given specific authority in the bylaws. They have only the specific authority that is given to them in the bylaws, even though some executive committees assume a lot of authority. Like the board, their meetings are open only to members of the executive committee and their invitees and are held in executive session.
A meeting or a portion of a meeting in which the proceedings are secret and the only attendees are members and invited guests. Deliberations of an executive session are secret and all attendees are honor-bound to maintain confidentiality. You may have already figured out that this may be an incredibly useful tool in a controversial issue and/or when you want the members to feel free to say things without worry of what they have said being repeated outside of the meeting.
A person is a member by virtue of an office held. An ex-officio member has full voting and speaking rights, unless otherwise indicated in the bylaws.
expunge from the minutes
Upon the adoption of the motion to Rescind and Expunge from the Minutes, the secretary draws a line through the portion of the minutes covered in the motion and writes the words "Rescinded and Ordered Expunged" with the date and his/her signature. This should be used rarely as a method of expressing strong disapproval of the action taken.
Refers to the number of memberships established in the bylaws. If the bylaws established a board of 9 and there were currently 2 vacancies, a majority of the fixed membership would be 5, a majority of the entire current membership would be 4.
A member has the floor when he has been recognized by the chair to speak. A member is "assigned the floor" by the presiding officer. During that time no one else is to speak until the floor is assigned to another. A motion is considered on the floor when it is in Step 4 of the processing of a motion; when it is pending.
An informal meeting or portion of a meeting that allows the members to openly discuss issues.
A proposed Amendment that is perceived to be acceptable to the entire assembly. This Amendment should be processed just like any other Amendment, following the steps of any other motion, even if the maker of the motion "accepts" the Amendment. If it is obvious all members are in agreement with the minor change, it can be adopted by unanimous consent.
A motion proposed that is not significant or is Dilatory (intended to delay or obstruct business).
fundamental principle of parliamentary law
Rules in parliamentary procedure that protect the basic rights of the individual member. These rules cannot be suspended. An example is that the right to vote is limited to the members as defined in the bylaws. Therefore, the rules cannot be suspended to allow non-members to vote.
A mallet used by presiding officer to bring order to the meeting and keep order throughout the meeting. A gavel is a symbol of parliamentary procedure and of the presiding officer.
general consent/unanimous consent
A method of voting without taking a formal vote. The presiding officer asks if there are any objections, and if none are expressed, the motion is considered passed. If any objection is expressed, the motion must be processed using the six steps.
A category of the agenda that includes any motion which, usually by postponement, has been made an order of the day without being made a special order. Translated, that means that if an item is Postponed until a certain day or after a certain event, it fits into this category.
Related to the subject. An Amendment must be germane to the motion it is Amending. A Secondary Amendment must be germane to the Primary Amendment it is Amending. For example, the Main Motion is "I move that we purchase a computer." A germane Amendment might be to add "not to exceed $3,000.00." An Amendment not germane would be to add "and an exercise bicycle."
good of the order
Refers to the number of memberships established in the bylaws. If the bylaws established a board of 9 and there were currently 2 vacancies, a majority of the fixed membership would be 5, a majority of the entire membership would be 4.
The rules of the organization. They include federal law, state law, corporate charter, articles of incorporation, constitution, bylaws, rules of order, standing rules, and policies and procedures.
governing documents of the parent organization
If the organization is a local or state branch of an organization (referred to as the parent organization) and they are authorized to exist in the governing documents of the parent organization, then the rules contained in the governing documents of the parent organization that apply to the local are higher in authority than the rules of that state or local organization.
hand counted vote
A method of voting in which the votes of the members are actually calculated, instead of estimated. The members raise their hands and someone counts the hands raised.
An informal meeting of a group that allows members to express their views and listen to the views of others on a particular subject.
A category of the agenda that includes any motion which, usually by postponement, has been made an order of the day without being made a special order. Translated, that means that if an item is Postponed until a certain day or after a certain event, it fits into this category.
An assembly. Most frequently used with legislative bodies or delegate bodies.
A vote that is not credited to any candidate or choice, but is counted as a vote cast. An example is a ballot cast for a fictional character, such as Sylvester the Cat or Tweety.
A motion is considered immediately pending when several motions are pending and it is the motion that was most recently stated by the chair and is one that will be first disposed of.
An action following correct parliamentary procedures.
Incidental Main Motion
A Main Motion that is incidental to, or related to, the business of the assembly, or its past or future action. An example is a motion to fix the method of making nominations if made before the election is pending.
Motions that relate to matters that are supplementary to the conduct of the meeting rather than directly to the Main Motion. They may be offered at any time when they are needed. Motions in this classification include: Point of Order, Appeal from the Decision of the Chair, Objection to Consideration of a Question, Suspend the Rules, Division Of The Assembly, Division Of The Question, Consideration By Paragraph/Seriatim, Parliamentary Inquiry, Point of Information, Motions Relating To Methods Of Voting And The Polls, Motions Relating To Nominations, Request To Be Excused From A Duty, Request For Permission To Withdraw A Motion, Request To Read Papers, and Request For Any Other Privilege.
A person who has been elected president but has not yet taken the office of president. This is different than president-elect, because president-elect is an official title for a particular office.
Improper or disorderly behavior.
A form of Committee of the Whole. This motion allows the assembly to exchange ideas on an informal basis with more freedom of debate than in a formal assembly.
item of business
An agenda item, including a report or a motion. The chair usually announces it by stating "the next item of business...".
Lay on the Table
This motion in essence puts aside a Main Motion until a later, unspecified time. It places in the care of the secretary the pending question and everything adhering to it. If a group meets quarterly or more frequently, the question that was moved to Lay on the Table remains there until taken off or until the end of the next regular session. This motion should not be used to kill a motion without debating it. The motion to Take from the Table is used when the assembly wants to continue considering the motion.
A vote cast by a member entitled to vote.
Limit or Extend Limits of Debate
This motion can reduce or increase the number and length of speeches permitted or limit the length of debate on a specific question.
A motion rejected by a vote of the assembly.
A motion that brings before the assembly any particular subject and is made when no other business is pending. If passed, it commits the assembly to do or say something. Motions in this classification include: Original Main Motion and Incidental Main Motion.
More than half of the votes cast. Also called the majority vote.
majority of the entire membership
More than half of all the members of the entity that is meeting. For example, in a meeting of a convention, a majority of the entire membership refers to a majority of all the registered convention attendees entitled to vote.
An incorrectly used term for the report of the majority of the members of a committee. Instead, it should simply be referred to as the committee report.
More than half of the votes cast. Also simply called the majority.
making the motion to Reconsider
The motion to Reconsider can be divided into the making of the motion and the actual consideration of the motion, referred to as calling up. The making the motion to Reconsider has higher ranking than the consideration of the motion. Therefore, there are times that the motion can be made, but not yet considered. Just the making and seconding of the motion to Reconsider temporarily suspends actions stemming from the vote it is proposed to Reconsider. That suspension lasts until the vote on Reconsider is taken. Also called Call Up The Motion to Reconsider.
An open and informal meeting of a group of people with a common interest but not formally organized. These meetings happen for many different reasons, one of which is that it's the very first step in the beginning of an organization. Because a mass meeting is not a meeting of an organized group, the rules applicable to a mass meeting are very different from those of other meetings. If you are going to attend a mass meeting or you are the person calling the mass meeting, you should review the section in RRoO regarding mass meetings. If the purpose of the mass meeting is to form a new organization, there is another section in RRoO that you will also want to review. That section walks you through the process of organizing a permanent society.
An assembly of members gathered to conduct business during which there is no separation of the members except for a short recess.
A person who belongs to an organization.
Members of an organization get together to meet and make decisions on behalf of the organization. As a general principle, usually the members of the organization have the rights to control the organization, unless they choose to assign those rights and responsibilities to another group. The place they assign those rights and responsibilities is in the bylaws. The entities that they assign those rights and responsibilities to varies but most frequently include staff, the board of directors, the executive committee, or other committees.
A formal expression of the views of a portion of the committee or group that are not in agreement with the majority stand on an issue.
The written record of the proceedings of a deliberative assembly. They are a record of what was done at the meeting, not what was said at the meeting.
A tool to assist in the minutes writing process. They are minutes prepared in advance of a meeting or convention which includes all that will be occurring, and the order in which it will occur. They contain many blank spaces that are filled in during the meeting by the person(s) in charge of the minutes. They are prepared using the agenda and/or the script for the meeting.
A proposal that the group take a specific action or stand. Motion and question are interchangeable terms.
motions relating to methods of voting and the pools
These motions are used to demand a ballot vote, count a vote, or close or reopen polls.
motions relating to nominations
These motions are used in relation to nominations of candidates for office. They include motions relating to the method of nomination, closing nominations, and reopening nominations.
motions that bring the question again before the assembly
Motions that are used to bring back a motion that has already been considered by the assembly. Motions in this classification include: Rescind, Amend Something Previously Adopted, Take from the Table, and Reconsider.
The word used to make a motion. "I move that..."
The person who makes the motion.
National Association of Parliamentarians (NAP)
A professional organization of parliamentarians that emphasizes RRoO as the parliamentary authority.
Word frequently used in a voice vote to vote in the negative. RRoO recommends simply using the word “no." "All those opposed to the motion, say 'nay'."
A vote against the adoption of the motion.
A heading on the agenda for items that are new items of business.
Naming a person as a candidate for an office or position.
A person who has been nominated.
An official announcement, given verbally or in writing, of an item of business that will be introduced at the meeting. Certain motions require previous notice.
null and void
Without legal force or effect.