Anatomy and Physiology Part 2 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Anatomy and Physiology Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Part 2 Deck (140):
1

leukocytes

white blood cell

2

mitral valve

flap or cusp between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart

3

myocardium

muscle layer of the heart

4

pericardium

membrane sac that covers the outside of the heart

5

plasma

liquid portion of the blood

6

pulmonary valve

flap or cusp between the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery

7

right atrium

the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus

8

right ventricle

the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk

9

septum

membranous wall that divides to cavities

10

systole

period of work, or contraction, of the heart

11

thrombocytes

also called a platelet; blood cell required for clotting of the blood

12

tricuspid valve

flap or cusp between the right atrium and right ventricle in the heart

13

veins

blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart

14

cisterna chyli

an enlarged pouch on the thoracic duct that serves as a storage area for lymph moving toward its point of entry into the venous system

15

lymph

a thin coagulable fluid (similar to plasma but) containing white blood cells (lymphocytes) and chyle

16

lymph nodes

many small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions

17

lymphatic capillaries

microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body

18

lymphatic vessels

large vessels with valves, which collect and carry lymph to lymph nodes

19

right lymphatic duct

collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body, and the right arm; empties into the right subclavian vein

20

spleen

a large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm

21

thoracic duct

the major duct of the lymphatic system

22

thymus

a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity

23

tonsils

mass of lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx and mouth

24

autonomic nervous system

that division of the nervous system concerned with reflex, or involuntary, activities of the body

25

brain

soft mass of nerve tissue inside the cranium

26

central nervous system

the division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord

27

cerebellum

the section of the brain that is dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata; maintains balance and equilibrium

28

cerebrospinal fluid

watery, clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord

29

cerebrum

largest section of brain; involved in sensory interpretation and voluntary muscle activity

30

diencephalon

the section of the brain between the cerebrum and midbrain; contains the thalamus and hypothalamus

31

hypothalamus

that structure in the diencephalon of brain that regulates and controls many body functions

32

medulla oblongata

the lower part of the brain stem; controls vital processes such as respiration and heartbeat

33

meninges

membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord

34

midbrain

that portion of the brain that connects the pons and cerebellum; relay center for impulses

35

nerves

group of nerve tissues that conducts impulses

36

neuron

nerve cell

37

parasympathetic

a division of the autonomic nervous system

38

peripheral nervous system

the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord

39

pons

that portion of the brain stem that connects the medulla oblongata and cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain

40

spinal cord

a column of nervous tissue extending from the medulla oblongata of the brain to the second lumbar vertebra in vertebral column

41

sympathetic

that divisions of the autonomic nervous system that allows the body to respond to emergencies and stress; also, to understand and attempt to solve the problems of another

42

thalamus

that structure in the diencephalon of the brain that acts as a relay center to direct sensory impulse to the cerebrum

43

ventricles

one of two lower chambers of the heart; also, a cavity in the brain

44

aqueous humor

watery liquid that circulates in the anterior chamber of the eye

45

auditory canal

either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane

46

auricle

also called the pinna, external part of the ear

47

choroid coat

a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera

48

cochlea

snail-shaped section of the inner ear; contains the organ of Corti, for hearing

49

conjunctiva

mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the anterior part of the sclera of the eye

50

cornea

the transparent section of the sclera; allows light rays to enter to eye

51

eustachian tube

tube that connects the middle ear and the pharynx, or throat

52

iris

colored portion of the eye; composed of muscular, or contractile, tissue that regulates the size of the pupil

53

lacrimal glands

it produce tears; it constantly moisten and cleanse the eye

54

lens

crystalline structure suspended behind the pupil of the eye; refracts or bends light rays onto the retina; also, the magnifying glass in a microscope

55

organ of Corti

structure in the cochlea of the ear; organ of hearing

56

ossicles

small bones, especially the three bones of the middle ear that amplify and transmit sound waves

57

pinna

also called the auricle; external portion of the ear

58

pupil

opening or hole in the center of the iris of the eye; allows light to enter the eye

59

refracts

breaks; forces back; bends as in bending a ray of light

60

retina

the sensory membrane that lines the eye and is the immediate instrument of vision

61

sclera

white outer coat of the eye

62

semicircular canals

structures of the inner ear that are involved in maintaining balance and equilibrium

63

tympanic membrane

the eardrum

64

vestibule

small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal

65

vitreous humor

jellylike mass that fills the cavity of the eyeball, behind the lens

66

alveoli

microscopic air sacs in the lungs

67

bronchi

two main branches of the trachea; air tubes to and from the lungs

68

bronchioles

small branches of the bronchi; carry air in the lungs

69

cilia

hairlike projections

70

epiglottis

leaf-shaped structure that closes over the larynx during swallowing

71

expiration

the expulsion of air from the lungs; breathing out air

72

inspiration

breathing in; taking air into the lungs

73

larynx

voice box, located between the pharynx and trachea

74

lungs

organ of respiration located in the thoracic cavity

75

nasal cavities

space between the cranium and the roof of the mouth

76

nasal septum

bony and cartilaginous partition that separates the nasal cavity into two sections

77

nose

the projection in the center of the face; the organ for smelling and breathing

78

pharynx

the throat

79

respiration

the process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide by way of the lungs and air passages

80

sinuses

cavity or air space in a bone

81

tracheae

windpipe; air tube from the larynx to the bronchi

82

ventilation

the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation

83

alimentary canal

the digestive tract from the esophagus to the rectum

84

anus

external opening of the anal canal, or rectum

85

colon

the large intestine

86

duodenum

first part of the small intestine; connects the pylorus of the stomach and the jejunum

87

esophagus

tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach

88

gallbladder

small sac near the liver; concentrates and stores bile

89

hard palate

bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth

90

ileum

final section of small intestine; connects the jejunum and large intestine

91

jejunum

the middle section of the small intestine; connects the duodenum and ileum

92

large intestine

the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body

93

liver

largest gland in the body; located in the URQ of the abdomen; two of its main functions are excreting bile and storing glycogen

94

mouth

oral cavity; opening the digestive tract, or alimentary canal

95

pancreas

gland that is dorsal to the stomach and that secretes insulin and digestive juices

96

peristalsis

rhythmic, wavelike motion of involuntary muscles

97

pharynx

the throat

98

rectum

The last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are eliminated

99

salivary glands

glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion

100

small intestine

that section of the intestine that is between the stomach and large intestine; site of most absorption of nutrients

101

soft palate

tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth; separates the mouth from the nasopharynx

102

stomach

enlarged section of the alimentary canal, between the esophagus and the small intestine; serves as an organ of digestion

103

teeth

hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating food

104

tongue

muscular organ of the mouth; aids in speech, swallowing, and taste

105

vermiform appendix

a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch

106

villi

tiny projections from a surface; in the small intestine, projections that aid in the absorption of nutrients

107

bladder

membranous sac or storage area for a secretion; also, the vesicle that acts as the reservoir for urine

108

Bowman's capsule

part of the renal corpuscle in the kidney; picks up substances filtered from the blood by glomerulus

109

cortex

the outer layer of an organ or structure

110

glomerulus

microscopic cluster of capillaries in Bowman;s capsule of the nephron in the kidney

111

kidneys

bean-shaped organ that excretes urine; located high and in back of the abdominal cavity

112

medulla

inner, or central, portion of an organ

113

nephrons

structural and functional unit of the kidney

114

ureters

tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

115

urethra

tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body

116

urinary meatus

external opening of the urethra

117

urine

the fluid excreted by the kidney

118

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress

119

endocrine

ductless gland that produces an internal secretion discharged into the blood or lymph

120

hormones

chemical substance secreted by an organ or gland

121

ovaries

endocrine gland or gonad that produces hormones and the female sex cell, or ovum

122

pancreas

gland that is dorsal to the stomach and that secretes insulin and digestive juices

123

parathyroid glands

one of four small glands located on the thyroid gland; regulated calcium and phosphorus

124

pineal body

a small endocrine gland in the brain

125

pituitary gland

small, rounded endocrine gland at the base of the brain; regulates function of other endocrine glands and body processes

126

placenta

temporary endocrine gland at the base of the brain; regulates function of other endocrine glands and body processes

127

testes

gonads or endocrine glands that are located in the scrotum of the male and that produce sperm and male hormones

128

thymus

organ in the upper part of the chest, lymphatic tissue, and endocrine gland that atrophies at puberty

129

thyroid gland

endocrine gland that is located in the next and regulars body metabolism

130

Bartholin's glands

two small mucous glands near the vaginal opening

131

breasts

mammary, or milk, gland located on the upper part of the front surface of the body

132

Cowper's glands

the pair of small mucous glands near the male urethra

133

ejaculatory ducts

in the male, duct or tube from the seminal vesicle to the urethra

134

endometrium

mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus

135

epididymis

tightly coiled tube in the scrotal sac; connects the testes with the vas or ductus deferens

136

fallopian tubes

oviducts; in the female, passageway for the ova from the ovary to uterus

137

fertilization

conception; impregnation of the ovum by the sperm

138

labia majora

two large folds of adipose tissue lying on each side of the vulva in the female

139

labia minora

two folds of membrane lying inside the labia majora

140

penis

external sex organ of the male