Anatomy Basics (Ch 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy Basics (Ch 1) Deck (40):
1

What are the different types of medical imaging?

1. Radiography (x-ray)
2. Sonography (ultrasound)
3. Computed Tomography (CT scan)
4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

2

Radiography

a.k.a. X-Ray
-usually used to identify fractures
-more dense bone = more white
ex. mammograms, chest exams

3

Sonography

a.k.a. Ultrasound
-portable/radiation-free
-high frequency waves reflected off organs
-used to visualize developing embryos/fetuses
-con: low res

4

Computed Tomography

a.k.a. CT scan
-good res, low intensity radiation
-used to visualize hard/soft tissue, bony defects, tumors, aneurysms, hemorrahages
-white = bone, gray = soft tissue, black = air
-cons: slow, uses radiation

5

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

a.k.a. MRI
-no radiation, high res
-visualizes soft tissues best
-can see tumors
-cons: $$$, slow, large magnet
-white = scalp, gray = soft tissue, black = bone

6

posterial

(or dorsal)
back

7

anterior

(or ventral)
front

8

superior

(or cranial)
up

9

inferior

(or caudal)
down

10

medial

toward midline

11

lateral

away from midline

12

proximal

closer to trunk

13

distal

further from trunk

14

superficial

more external

15

deep

more internal

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saggital plane

(median)
divides body into left/right vertically

17

parasaggital plane

divides body into left/right but NOT at midline
*used in x-rays

18

frontal (coronal) plane

divides body into anterior/posterior
*used in ultrasounds

19

transverse (horizontal) plane

divides body into superior/inferior
*used for CT scans/MRI

20

oblique plane

passes through body at an angle

21

Axial Region of the Body

Includes:
-head, neck, trunk
-body cavities: cranial, vertebral, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic

22

Appendicular Region of the Body

Includes:
-Upper limb regions: manus (hand) (including the fingers, pollex (thumb), palmer/dorsal surface), brachial (arm), carpal (wrist), antebrachial (forearm)
-Lower limb regions: femoral (thigh), pes (foot) (including the plantar/dorsal surfaces, hallux (big toe)), crural (leg)

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manus

hand

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pollex

thumb

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pes

foot

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hallux

big toe

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crural

leg

28

Levels of Body Organization

1. Chemical
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. Organ System
6. Organismal

29

What are the 11 organ systems?

1. Integumentary
2. Skeletal
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
5. Endocrine
6. Cardiovascular
7. Lymphatic (Immune)
8. Respiratory
9. Digestive
10. Urinary
11. Reproductive

30

Integumentary System

-protects against outside environment
-maintains internal water balance
--> skin, hair, nails

31

Skeletal System

-supports body
-stores minerals
--> bones

32

Muscular System

-facilitates movement
-pumps blood
-moves materials through digestive tract
-controls entrances/exits
-generates heat
--> smooth/cardiac muscle

33

Nervous System

-transmits signals
--> brain, spinal cord, nerves

34

Endocrine system

-produces hormones to regulate metabolism, growth, and reproduction
--> glands

35

Cardiovascular System

-carries nutrients and oxygen
-removes wastes
--> heart, blood vessels

36

Lymphatic (Immune) System

-guards against infection --> immune response
--> lymph vesses, bone marrow, spleen

37

Respiratory System

-brings in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
--> lungs

38

Digestive System

-food intake/nutritional absorption
-elimination of wastes
--> oral cavity, liver, gall bladder, stomach

39

Urinary System

-filters blood/removes wastes
--> kidneys, bladder

40

Reproductive System

-reproduction
--> ovaries, testes, uterus