Articulations (Ch 9) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Articulations (Ch 9) Deck (40):
1

What's another name for joints?

articulations

2

What are the functions of joints?

support and movement

3

Joints

-bones articulate (come in contact) at joints
-skeletal muscles cross over joints in order to achieve movement
-more mobile = less stable
-classified by function or structure

4

Functional classification of joints

relates to amount of movement allowed at the joint
1. Synarthrosis
2. Amphiarthrosis
3. Diarthrosis

5

Synarthrosis

*functional classification
-immovable joint (ex. skull sutures, epiphyseal plates)

6

Amphiarthrosis

*functional classification
-slightly movable joint (ex. pubic symphysis)

7

Diarthrosis

*functional classification
-freely movable (ex. joints in limbs)

8

Structural classification of joints

based on CT that binds bonds together (fibers/cartilage) and presence or absence of joint cavity
1. Fibrous
2. Cartilaginous
3. Synovial

9

Fibrous

*structural classification of joints
-connected by fibrous CT (ex. skull sutures)

10

Cartilaginous

*structural classification of joints
-connected by cartilage tissue (ex. pubic symphysis)

11

Synovial

*structural classification of joints
-connected by a fluid-filled joint cavity within a capsule (ex. most joints like shoulder/elbow/knee)
-most movable (diarthrosis)

12

What are the types of cartilaginous joints?

1. Synchondroses
2. Symphyses

13

Synchondroses

type of cartilaginous joint where bones are joined by hyaline cartilage (ex. costochondrial joints, epiphyseal plates)

14

Symphyses

type of cartilaginous joint where there is fibrocartilage between articulating joints (ex. intervertebral joints, public symphysis)

15

What are the parts of typical synovial joints?

1. Articular (fibrous) capsule
2. Joint (articular) cavity
3. Synovial fluid
4. Articular (hyaline) cartilage
5. Ligaments

16

Articular (fibrous) capsule

*synovial joint
-two parts: outer fibrous layer continuous with periosteum and inner synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid

17

Joint (articular) cavity

*synovial joint
-space filled with synovial fluid

18

Synovial fluid

*synovial joint
-liquid in joint cavity/cartilages that provides lubrication

19

Articular (hyaline) cartilage

*synovial joint
-absorbs forces on the joint and protects the bone

20

Ligaments

*synovial joint
-connects bone to bone, strengthens joints (can be internal or external to articular capsule
-have blood supply/are innervated

21

Bursae

*synovial joint
saclike structure with synovial fluid

22

Tendon Sheaths

*synovial joint
wrap around tendons to reduce friction where bones/ligaments/tendons rub

23

Knee Joint

-largest/most complex joint
-acts as hinge (may rotate slightly)
-2 condyloid joints (lateral/medial)
-both femur and tibia have two condylar surfaces
-strong ligaments to help knee from moving wrong way (LCL, MCL, ACL, PCL)
-12 bursa to reduce friction
-menisci made of fibrocartilage (aka articular discs) help even out weight distribution/stabilize joint
-->prevent side to side rocking o femur on tibia

24

What are the ligaments of the knee?

1. Lateral (fibular) Collateral Ligament (LCL)
2. Medial (tibial) Collateral Ligament (MCL)
3. Anterial Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
4. Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)

25

The unhappy triad

when knee is hit while foot is planted
--> tears multiple ligaments and menesci

26

Temporomandibular Joint

TMJ
-divided by articular disc (meniscus) into superior and inferior compartments
-superior: gliding
-inferior: hinge
-saggital section through joint --> movement back and forth (opening/closing mouth)
-lateral excursion (side to side)

27

The Glenohumeral Joint

-ball and socket
-highly mobile = not stable
-glenoid cavity is not deep
-dislocates easily

28

The Hip Joint

-ball and socket
-less mobility = more stable
-deep acetabulum for herd of femur
-ligamentum teres extend from acetabulum --> fovea captius (on head of femur) which may add stability

29

The Elbow Joint

-hinge joint (humerus/ulna)
--> annular ligament forms pivot at proximal radioulnar join

30

Rheumatoid Arthritis

autoimmune disease
-symptoms: pain, stiffness, weakness
-begins with inflammation of synovial membrane (joint swells)
-chronic inflammation of joint capsule deteriorates CT around joint

31

Arthritis in Knee

-most common is osteoarthritis --> affects articular cartilages
-"wear and tear" = stiffening, pain, swelling
-extreme solution is complete replacement of knee

32

hinge

allows flexion/extension (ex. elbow)

33

pivot

allows rotation (ex. proximal radioulnar)

34

ball and socket

very flexible, allows flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, and rotation (ex. hip)

35

gliding

Two opposing articular surfaces slide past each other in almost any direction; the amount of movement is slight (ex. wrist)

36

abduction

movement of bone away from midline

37

protraction

Anterior movement of a body part from anatomic position

38

retraction

Posterior movement of a body part from anatomic position

39

adduction

movement of bone towards midline

40

oppostion

moving dumb to touch tips of other fingers