Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (36):
Functions of the female reproductive system?
1. produce gametes (oocytes)
2. support developing embryo
lateral to uterus
--> where oocytes are produced/released
What are the ovaries help in place by?
mesenteries + ligaments (mesovarium, suspensory, and ovarian ligaments--> all within the broad ligament in the peritoneum that hangs over the uterus)
Where does the suspensory ligament attach?
ovary to the pelvic wall
What does the ovarian ligament attach?
the ovary to the uterus
What are the subdivisions of the ovaries?
--> surrounded wholly by tunica albuginea
holds gametes (oocytes)
--> each oocyte is held within a follicle
loose CT filled with blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels
1. Primary oocytes begin to mature within growing follicles
2. primary oocyte completes meiosis I to become secondary oocyte
3. Secondary oocyte begins meiosis II and is released during ovulation when follicle ruptures
4. A corpus luteum developes from follicle remnants
5. The corpus luteum degenerates if secondary oocyte is not fertilized
--> into fallopian tubes
a.k.a. Fallopian Tubes
-begin at infundibulum (recieves egg) and end at the uterus --> fimbriae
What are the uterine tubes surrounded by?
ciliated fimbria --> help egg pass into oviduct
(b/c infundibulum doesn't touch ovary)
What is medial to the infundibulum?
What is the medial portion of the oviduct?
isthmus (next to uterus)
1. ovulated egg released into peritoneal cavity (close to but NOT into infundibulum)
2. infundibulum bends over ovary --> fimbriae sweep over ovarian surface which produces a current in peritoneal fluid to help bring the egg into the uterine tube
--> cilia and smooth muscle assist in movement as well
Tubal (ectopic) pregnancy
fertilized egg implants in uterine tube
-located in pelvic cavity, anterior to rectum
--> held in place by broad and round ligament
-hollow, thick-walled, pear shaped
What is the main portion of the uterus called?
What is the rounded top of the uterus called?
What is the narrow region of the uterus inferior to the body called?
What is the neck of the uterus called?
--> holds uterus closed during pregnancy
What is inferior to the cervix?
What are the three layers of the uterus?
outer serious membrane of the uterus
smooth muscle layer of the uterus that pushes the fetus out
-contracts during labor
lining of the uterus
-simple columnar epithelium + cilia/secretory cells
-nourishes fetus during development or shed during menstruation
Clitoris (female) vs. Penis (male)
-contains erectile tissue including corpora cavernosum
labia majora (female) vs. scrotum (male)
-labia minora encloses vestibule which houses urethral/vaginal openings
secrete mucus when sexually aroused
*technically part of the integument (modified sweat glands)
-present in males/females but only functional in females
-divided into lobes and smaller lobules
-milk secreted into larger and larger ducts --> eventually reaches lactiferous ducts at nipple
lobules of mammary glands
have alveoli that produce milk
--> lobules/alveoli only develop during pregnancy
where milk accumulates during nursing
pigmented skin around nipple
path of milk out of mammary gland
lobe --> lobule (containing alveoli) --> lactiferous duct --> lactiferous sinus
What layer of the uterus is shed during normal menstruation?
severe abdominal cramps, endometrium in other places than the uterus (fallopian tubes, ovaries, etc) is shed causing pain and possibly scaring