Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (36):
1

Functions of the female reproductive system?

1. produce gametes (oocytes)
2. support developing embryo

2

Ovaries

lateral to uterus
--> where oocytes are produced/released

3

What are the ovaries help in place by?

mesenteries + ligaments (mesovarium, suspensory, and ovarian ligaments--> all within the broad ligament in the peritoneum that hangs over the uterus)

4

Where does the suspensory ligament attach?

ovary to the pelvic wall

5

What does the ovarian ligament attach?

the ovary to the uterus

6

What are the subdivisions of the ovaries?

1. cortex
2. medulla
--> surrounded wholly by tunica albuginea

7

Ovary: cortex

holds gametes (oocytes)
--> each oocyte is held within a follicle

8

Ovary: medulla

loose CT filled with blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels

9

Oogenesis

1. Primary oocytes begin to mature within growing follicles
2. primary oocyte completes meiosis I to become secondary oocyte
3. Secondary oocyte begins meiosis II and is released during ovulation when follicle ruptures
4. A corpus luteum developes from follicle remnants
5. The corpus luteum degenerates if secondary oocyte is not fertilized
--> into fallopian tubes

10

Uterine Tubes

a.k.a. Fallopian Tubes
-begin at infundibulum (recieves egg) and end at the uterus --> fimbriae

11

What are the uterine tubes surrounded by?

ciliated fimbria --> help egg pass into oviduct
(b/c infundibulum doesn't touch ovary)

12

What is medial to the infundibulum?

ampulla (expansion)

13

What is the medial portion of the oviduct?

isthmus (next to uterus)

14

Ovulation/Uterine Tubes

1. ovulated egg released into peritoneal cavity (close to but NOT into infundibulum)
2. infundibulum bends over ovary --> fimbriae sweep over ovarian surface which produces a current in peritoneal fluid to help bring the egg into the uterine tube
--> cilia and smooth muscle assist in movement as well

15

Tubal (ectopic) pregnancy

fertilized egg implants in uterine tube
*major damage

16

Uterus

-located in pelvic cavity, anterior to rectum
--> held in place by broad and round ligament
-hollow, thick-walled, pear shaped

17

What is the main portion of the uterus called?

body

18

What is the rounded top of the uterus called?

fundus

19

What is the narrow region of the uterus inferior to the body called?

isthmus

20

What is the neck of the uterus called?

cervix
--> holds uterus closed during pregnancy

21

What is inferior to the cervix?

the vagina

22

What are the three layers of the uterus?

1. Perimetrium
2. Myometrium
3. Endometrium

23

Perimetrium

outer serious membrane of the uterus

24

Myometrium

smooth muscle layer of the uterus that pushes the fetus out
-contracts during labor

25

Endometrium

lining of the uterus
-simple columnar epithelium + cilia/secretory cells
-nourishes fetus during development or shed during menstruation

26

Clitoris

Clitoris (female) vs. Penis (male)
-contains erectile tissue including corpora cavernosum

27

Labia Majora/Minora

labia majora (female) vs. scrotum (male)
-labia minora encloses vestibule which houses urethral/vaginal openings

28

vestibular glands

secrete mucus when sexually aroused

29

Mammary Glands

*technically part of the integument (modified sweat glands)
-present in males/females but only functional in females
-divided into lobes and smaller lobules
-milk secreted into larger and larger ducts --> eventually reaches lactiferous ducts at nipple

30

lobules of mammary glands

have alveoli that produce milk
--> lobules/alveoli only develop during pregnancy

31

lactiferous sinus

where milk accumulates during nursing

32

areola

pigmented skin around nipple

33

path of milk out of mammary gland

lobe --> lobule (containing alveoli) --> lactiferous duct --> lactiferous sinus

34

What layer of the uterus is shed during normal menstruation?

endometrium

35

Endometriosis

severe abdominal cramps, endometrium in other places than the uterus (fallopian tubes, ovaries, etc) is shed causing pain and possibly scaring

36

Tubal Ligation

fallopian tubes are tied off and cut apart → oocyte cannot continue on to the uterus