Digestive System (Ch 26) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive System (Ch 26) Deck (57):
1

What is the function of the digestive system?

to take in food, break it down, absorb nutrients, and eliminate wastes

2

What are the two components of the digestive system?

1. Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
2. Accessory Organs

3

Peritoneum

-->lining of the abdominopelvic cavity
1. parietal peritoneum: lines body walls
2. visceral peritoneum: lines organs
3. peritoneal cavity: between parietal and visceral, filled with fluid --> prevents friction

4

Intraperitoneal

inside peritoneal cavity, highly mobile (ex. stomach, liver, ileum, jejunum, tranverse/sigmoid colon)

5

Retroperitoneal

behind peritoneal cavity, adhered to back wall of abdominopelvic wall (ex. pancreas, duodenum, ascending/descending colon, rectum)

6

What are the six digestive processes?

1. Ingestion
2. Mechanical Digestion
3. Propulsion
4. Chemical Digestion
5. Absorption
6. Defecation

7

Celiac Trunk

branch of abdominal aorta, inferior to diagram (along w/superior and inferior mesenteric arteries)
Three branches off trunk:
1. Splenic Artery
2. Common Hepatic Artery
3. Gastric Artery

8

Splenic Artery

supplies blood to spleen

9

Common Hepatic Artery

supplies blood to the liver

10

Gastric Artery

supplies blood to the stomach

11

Superior Mesenteric Artery

supplies small intestine + proximal colon

12

Inferior Mesenteric Artery

supplies distal colon

13

Renal Arteries

supplies kidneys

14

Gonadal Arteries

testicular/ovarian arteries
-branch off high on abdominal aorta and travel inferior to gonads

15

Hepatic Portal System

series of vessels that drain the GI tract and shunts blood to liver for absorption/processing

16

Inferior Mesenteric Vein

drains into splenic vein

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Superior Mesenteric Vein

connects with splenic vein to form Hepatic Portal Vein

18

Hepatic Portal Vein

carries blood TO the liver for detox/nutrient processing

19

Hepatic Veins

how blood EXITS the liver
-feeds into the inferior vena cava

20

Accessory Organs

Teeth
Palates
Tongue
Salivary Glands
Liver
Pancreas
Gall Bladder

21

Teeth

--> mechanical digestion (chew food)
*2123
2-incisors
1-canine
2-premolars
3-molars

22

crown of tooth

exposed part

23

root of tooth

part in socket

24

enamel of tooth

*hardest substance in body
-on outside of tooth

25

dentin of tooth

underneath enamel

26

Pulp cavity of tooth

filled with loose CT (pulp)
contains vessels and nerves
part of the pulp cavity in root is root canal.

27

apical foramen of tooth

opening at tip

28

cementum of tooth

External surface to help hold tooth in place

29

Periodontal ligament of tooth

anchors tooth in jaw socket

30

gingiva

gum

31

salivary glands

secrete enzymes to begin chemical digestion
1. parotid: near ear
2. submandibular: under mandible
3. sublingual: under tongue

32

Tongue

extrinsic muscle
intrinsic muscle
papillae (fungiform, lingum tonsil)

33

extrinsic muscle of tongue

attach tongue to skull

34

intrinsic muscle of tongue

change shape of tongue to help form bolus

35

papillae

bumps on tongue (not tastebuds)
-filliform: help manipulate food
-lingual tonsil: help prevent infection

36

Liver

-2nd largest organ in body
-digestive function --> produce bile to emulsify fats
*processes/converts nutrients
*collects/stores glucose
*detoxifies many poisons/drugs
*makes blood proteins (globulins)

37

Gallbladder

concentrates/stores bile secreted by liver
empties duodenum by way of common bile duct

38

Pancreas
*both an exocrine/endocrine gland

-exocrine ducts empty into duodenum
-releases enzymes for protein digestion
-releases sodium bicarbonate to neutralize chyme
-secretes hormones

39

Hard/Soft Palate

hard: roof of oral cavity, formed from fusion of ventral skull bones
soft: fleshy part of palate composed to muscle + uvula hangs down

40

Organs of the GI Tract (alimentary canal)

1. Pharynx
2. Esophagus
3. Stomach
4. Intestines
5. Anus

41

Pharynx

-swallowing --> voluntary
-pushes bolus from mouth to esophagus

42

Esophagus

transports bolus from pharynx to stomach

43

Stomach

-widest part of GI tract
-lined with simple columnar epithelium
-NOT essential for digestion, mostly for storage
-output is chyme to small intestine

44

What happens in the intestines?

***digestion/absorption
-fatty acids/fat soluble vitamins diffuse into lipids via lymphatic capillary
-organic materials absorbed directly into bloodstream

45

Small Intestine

3 regions: duodenum, jejunum, ileum

46

What does the duodenum receive?

chyme (from stomach)
digestive enzymes (from pancreas)
bile (from liver)

47

What is the ileocecal valve?

between ileum and cecum

48

Large Intestine

Primarily for absorption --> water and electrolytes
-appendix: immune function, holds good bacteria
-rectum: holds feces
-anal canal: last subdivision

49

What are the two sphincters of the anus?

internal anal sphincter: smooth muscle, involuntary --> expels feces
external anal sphincter: skeletal muscle, voluntary --> controls defecation

50

Haustra

bunched up pouches of intestine

51

Teniae Coli

longitudinal bands of smooth muscle on superficial colon/cecum

52

fundus

dome-shaped region lateral and superior to the esophageal connection with the stomach

53

pyloric sphincter

thick ring of circular smooth muscle that regulates the entrance of chyme into the small intestine

54

cardiac region

small, narrow, superior entryway into the stomach lumen from the esophagus

55

rungae

rings that allow the stomach to expand greatly when it fills and then return to its normal size

56

greater curvature

outside curve of stomach

57

lesser curvature

inner curve of stomach