Endocrine System (Ch 20) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System (Ch 20) Deck (14):
1

Exocrine Glands vs. Endocrine Glands

exocrine: secreted onto epithelial surfaces via ducts (ex. sweat gland)

endocrine: produce hormones that are secreted into the bloodstream (NO ducts)

2

Endocrine System functions

-maintain homeostasis
-uses hormones as chemical messengers via bloodstream --> cause changes in metabolic activity in target cells
*effects last minutes to weeks (even when stimulus is removed)

3

Pitutary/Hypothalamus Glands

closely related
-Hypothalamus controls the secretion of the pituitary gland

4

Pituitary Gland

"master gland"
Anterior lobe (6 hormones) and posterior lobe (2 hormones)

5

Hormones of the Pituitary Gland

F- FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
L- LH (luteinizing hormone)
A- ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone)
T- TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
P- PRL (prolactin)
I- IGNORED --> MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)
G- GH (growth hormone)

6

Thyroid Gland

ancient structure- appears in early development
*butterfly shaped on anterior neck around trachea
-two lateral lobes
-two hormones
1. thyroid hormone: for metabolism
2. calcitonin: for maintaining calcium levels

7

Cretinism

thyroid hormone is essential to normal growth/development
--> low levels effect nervous tissue = developmental delays

8

Graves Disease

-too much TH = anxiety, fat deposits behind eyes, heat intolerance, fatigue

9

Parathyroid Glands

within thyroid, distinct
-product parathyroid hormone = regulates calcium levels

10

Adrenal Glands

located on superior surface of kidneys
-adrenal cortex: surrounds medulla
-adrenal tissue: helps cope with extreme stress

11

Pineal Gland

located in brain
-cells synthesize melatonin

12

Pancreas

endocrine portion: creates glucagon and insulin

13

Diabetes Mellitus

Type I (insulin dependent): insulin secreting cells in pancreas are destroyed immune response, juvenile onset
Type II (insulin resistent): receptor cells have reduced sensitivity to insulin, sugar not absorbed by cells/stays in bloodstream (due to diet/obesity)

14

Secondary Endocrine Glands

heart, thymus, kidney, ovaries, testes, GI tract