Male Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Deck (36):
1

testes

produce sperm
-housed in the scrotum
-divided into two parts by a septum

2

urethra

where sperm exits out
Three parts:
1. prostatic
2. intermediate
3. spongy

3

what are the accessory sex glands?

1. seminal vessicle
2. prostate gland
3. bulbourethral glands
--> produce fluids that nourish sperm

4

scrotum

external sac, outside of body cavity

5

cremaster muscle

elevates/relaxes testes to maintain optimal temp for sperm development
cooler weather --> contract to raise testes closer to body

6

spermatic cord

ductus (vas) deferens + fascia + testicular vessels + nerves
-extends from scrotum --> inguinal canal
(superficial inguinal ring --> inguinal canal --> deep inguinal ring)

7

superficial inguinal ring

medial opening of the spermatic cord

8

deep inguinal ring

where ductus (vas) deferens and testicular vessels enter the abdomen

9

inguinal hernia

increase in pressure causes intestine to extrude through the deep inguinal ring/abdominal wall

10

Testes: descent in development

1. testes start superficially in body
2. Glabernaculum (fibrous tissue cord) shortens and pulls testes down through the abdominal wall and into the scrotum
-->Glabernaculum extends from caudal end of developing testes through body wall into skin of future scrotum
-testes follow this path
-spermatic cord follows testes

11

Glabernaculum

fibrous tissue cord in testes

12

What are the testes surrounded by? What is deep to this?

tunica vaginalis
-->tunical abuginea is deep to this

13

Subdivisions of the testes

250-300 subdivisions
containing seminiferous tubules
--> converge to straight tubule (carries sperm to rete testes)
--> leads through efferent ducutules
--> epididymis

14

Seminiferous Tubules

-located within testes
-contain support cells (sertioli cells) and dividing germ cells (future sperm)

15

Spermatogenesis

-takes 75 days to create mature sperm
-400 million produced per day from puberty until death
1. Spermatogonia in seminiferous tubules
2. Primary/Secondary Spermatocytes
3. spermatids
4. sperm

16

Anatomy of Mature Sperm Cell

-head contains a nucleus
-head surrounded by acrosome
-midpiece contains mitochondria (energy to propel sperm)
-tail = flagella (movement)

17

acrosome

has enzymes that enable sperm to penetrate the egg

18

epididymus

-->site of sperm maturation/storage
-protein secretions nourish sperm and help maturation
*ejaculation

19

ejaculation

smooth muscle in walls of epididymus contract --> expel sperm to ductus (vas) deferens)

20

Ductus (vas) deferens

-transports sperm during ejaculation
-extends from epididymus --> pelvic cavity (goes over the top of the bladder)
-joints duct of seminal gland --> forms ejaculatory gland --> passes through prostate/urethra

21

vasectomy

surgical method of birth control, ductus deferens is cut/ends tied off through scrotum

22

tubal ligation

tied off uterine tubes

23

Urethra

-carries urine/sperm
-includes: prostatic urethra, intermediate urethra, and spongy urethra

24

Seminal Vessicles

*accessory gland
-posterior to bladder
-produce portion of seminal fluid
-join ductus deferens = ejaculatory duct

25

Prostate Gland

*accessory gland
-inferior to bladder
-produces some seminal fluid
-holds prostatic urethra

26

semen

secretions from seminal, prostate, and bulbourethral glands + sperm cells

27

Penis

delivers sperm into female reproductive tract
-root = base (where it attaches to pelvis)
-body = free portion
-glans penis = enlarged end
-skin covering is loose

28

glans penis

enlarged end of penis

29

prepuce

foreskin (where it extends around the glans penis)

30

Erectile Tissues

spongy CT filled with vascular spaces
1. Corpus Spongiosum = anteriorly
2. Corpura Cavernosa = posteriorly/paired

31

erection

filling erectile spaces with blood (parasympathetic control)

32

process of erection

1. during sexual stimulation arteries dilate and blood flow increases
2. corpus savernosum + spongiosum expand and compress veins that normally drain them (maintains erection)
3. ejaculation under sympathetric control (smooth muscle contraction squeezes the semen into urethra)
4. bulbospongiosus muscle at base of penis squeezes semen out of urethra

33

Why are the testes located outside the body?

internal temp is too high for sperm development (needs to be about 3 degrees cooler)

34

Anatomy of testes (superficial to deep)

1. tunica vaginalis
2. tunica albuginea
3. lobules
4. semiferous tubules
5. straight tubule
6. rete testes
7. efferent ductules
8. epididymis

35

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

harmless, discomfort, enlarged prostate, NOT prostate cancer, urethra compressed/unable to urinate properly

36

What structure are you hoping to palpate during a rectal exam to check for enlargement?

prostate gland