Respiratory System (Ch 25) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System (Ch 25) Deck (42):
1

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

1. Pulmonary Ventilation (breathing): inhale gases/exhale gases
2. External Respiration: gas exchange between atmosphere and blood
3. Internal Respiration: gas exchange from blood to cells by capillaries)

2

What are the functional zones of the respiratory system?

1. Conducting Zone: filtering, warming, and humidifying air/carrying it to lungs (most of resp system)
2. Respiratory Zone: gas exchange within the lungs (alveoli, alveolar ducts

3

What are the respiratory system tracts?

1. Upper Respiratory Tract: nasal cavity --> sinuses --> pharynx
2. Lower Respiratory Tract: larynx --> trachea --> bronchi --> lungs (also include pleura + diaphragm)

4

What forms the nose?

-nasal bone
-frontal bones
-maxillary bone
-hyaline cartilage at tip of nose

5

What is the septum of the nose?

midline of nose formed by several bones

6

What is the floor of the nasal cavity?

formed by the hard and soft palates
-divide nasal cavity from mouth

7

What is the function of the nose?

"air conditioner"
-filters, warms, and humidifies incoming air

8

Nose and Nasal Cavity

--> composed of bone and cartilage
Includes: nares (nostrils), nasal hairs (filter particles), capillaries (warm air), mucus membranes, and nasal conchae

9

Nasal Conchae

-folds on the nose's lateral walls (superior/middle/inferior) covered by a mucus membrane
-function: increase SA of mucus membrane to help moisten air

10

Paranasal Sinuses

-hollow sparse lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
-drain into nasal cavity via ducts

11

Pharynx

a.k.a. the throat
-3 parts
-passageway for food/air

12

Nasopharynx

-posterior to nasal cavity, superior to soft palate
-lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium (for protection, to secrete mucus)
-air passage only
-pharyngotypanic (auditory) tube opens into lateral wall of nasopharynx (drains middle ear

13

Oropharynx

-posterior to oral cavity
-food passage here
-becomes stratified squamous epithelium (protection)

14

Laryngopharynx

-posterior to larynx, connects to esophagus AND larynx
-food passage here
-becomes stratified squamous epithelium (protection)

15

Olfactory Nerves

Located in upper part of nasal cavity, detects smell

16

Larynx

a.k.a. the voice box
-anterior to esophagus, opens into laryngopharynx
-attaches to hyoid bone superiorly and trachea inferiorly
Functions:
1. produces vocalizations
2. provides open airway
3. routes air/food to proper tube

17

What are the parts of the larynx?

1. Epiglottis
2. Glottis

18

Epiglottis

superior part of larynx
-cartilage covered in mucosa (epithelial tissue)
-attaches to thyroid cartilage and bone
-covers larynx during swallowing (flips over glottis to seal off)
-opens up during breathing

19

Glottis

--> sound production
-vocal folds: tightness determines pitch, size determines loudness

20

Thyroid Cartilage

-largest laryngeal cartilage
-shaped like a shield, forms the lateral and anterior walls of the larynx

21

Cricoid Cartilage

-ring-shaped cartilage
-located inferior to the thyroid cartilage

22

Arytenoid cartilages

-posterior to larynx
-one of three paired cartilages

23

True vocal fold

-part of glottis
-make noise when air passes between

24

Trachea

-connects larynx to bronchi, anterior to esophagus
-branches into left and right main bronchi at sternal angle
Structure:
-hyaline cartilage rings --> won't collapse
-trachealis muscles (smooth muscle), cough --> contract
-ciliated epithelium

25

Trachea in relation to esophagus

-trachea is anterior to esophagus
-posterior part of trachea is soft tissue --> allowing trachea to expand to breathe without constricting the esophagus during feeding

26

What does the brachial tree look like?

trachea --> main bronchi --> lobar bronchi --> segmental bronchioles

27

Bronchioles and Alveoli

-smallest part of respiratory system, end of respiratory passageway
bronchi --> terminal bronchioles --> respiratory bronchioles --> alveolar ducts --> alveolar sacs --> alveoli

28

Alveoli

allow for gas diffusion between respiratory system and capillaries

29

Pleural Cavity

between visceral (line lung) and parietal (line body wall) pleurae
-fluid within decreases friction, creates surface tension that helps expand lung when thoracic cavity expands

30

Hemothorax

blood in pleural cavity, lungs cannot fully expand

31

Pneumothorax

air in pleural cavity --> collapsed lung

32

Which body cavity contains the lungs?

thoracic cavity

33

Why are lungs so light and elastic?

filled with air and composed of elastic fibers, surrounded by pleural sacs filled with fluid

34

What is the cardiac notch?

the indentation of the heart in the left lung

35

Positioning of lungs

apex of lung protrudes superior to clavicle
bases of lung rest on diaphragm

36

What is the hilum? What is the function of this region?

-region where blood vessels, bronchi, lymph vessels, and nerves enter/exit lung
-"root" of lung - attaches it to rest of mediastinum

37

What are the part of ventilation?

Inspiration and Expiration

38

Inspiration

1. muscles contract (diaphragm, external/internal intercostals)
2. lungs expand
3. air pulled in (increased volume, decreased pressure)

39

Expiration

1. muscles relax (diaphragm, external/internal intercostals)
-->abdominal muscles contract, pushing diaphragm back up
2. lungs shrink
3. air forced out (decreased volume, increased pressure)
*usually passive

40

What are the fissures of the lungs?

RIGHT:
1. Horizontal Fissure
2. Oblique Fissure

LEFT:
1. Oblique Fissure

41

Horizontal Fissure

separates the superior from the middle lobe in right lung ONLY

42

Oblique Fissure

separates the middle from the inferior lobe