Flashcards in Anatomy/Phys Deck (87):
List the normal pathway for systemic circulation?
Left ventricle-> aorta-> body-> systemic veins-> superior/inferior vena cava -> right atrium
List the pathway for pulmonary circulation?
Right ventricle->pulmonary artery-> lungs-> pulmonary veins-> left atrium
Which pancreatic cells are the most plentiful?
cells producing glucagon
What is the refractory period
Time during which a neuron cannot generate another action potential. Sodium channels are closed and cannot be reopened
What is glycolysis
The breakdown of glucose into two molecules of 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. A net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH molecules
What is the Krebs Cycle
Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxid to form acetyl-CoA. When acetyl-CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide in the Krebs cycle, chemical energy is release and captured in the form of NADH, FADH2, and ATP
What is the electron transport chain
It allows the release of the large amount of chemical energy stored in reduced NAD+ and reduced FAD. The energy released is captured in the form of ATP
What is the equation for blood pressure
Cardiac output x peripheral resistance
How would you measure blood oxygen saturation? (SpO2)?
Pulse oximeter (noninvasive)
What is a normal percentage of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin?
90% to 100%
What does the axial skeleton consist of?
Skull, spinal column, ribs, and sternum
What is Osteon
Structural unit of compact bone
what is Fibrocartilage
Greater amount of collagen fibers
Where can fibrocartilage be found
Interpubic, discs, and menisci
What is Elastic Cartilage
Collagen and elastin fibers
Where can elastic cartilage be found
epiglottis and outer ear
Organic Matrix is composed of…..
primarily collagen fibers
Inorganic Matrix is composed of…..
primarily mineral salts and calcium
What is Cortical Bone?
Compact bone that has an ordered and dense arrangement
Where is cortical bone located?
primarily in the shafts of long bones
What Does The Appendicular Skeleton Consist Of?
Upper Extremities, Lower Extremities, And Pelvic Girdle
What Is Nonfeasance/Omission?
Where An Individual Fails To Perform A Legal Duty
What Is Malfeasance/Commission?
Where Commit An Act That Is Not Legally Able To Perform
Describe Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers
Type 1 Fibers
More Resistant To Fatigue
What Is A Epiphyseal Plate?
Growth Plates, Made Up Of Cartilage
Heat Loss Or Heat Gain Through Physical Contact
Heat Loss Or Heat Gain Through Circulatory Medium
What Is Cartilage
What Is Cartilage Composed Of
Cartilage Cells And Matrix
What Are Chondroblasts
What Are Chondrocytes
What Is The Purpose Of Osteoblasts
Build Bone Tissue
What Is The Purpose Of Osteoclasts
Breakdown Or Resorb Bone Tissue
Osteocytes Are Found Where
Located Within Lacunae
Small Cavities Within A Bone
What Is The Role Of The Skeletal System?
Supports Body Weight
Transfers Body Weight
Describe Adhesive Felt
Combining A Cushinoning Effect With The Ability To Be Help In A Specific Spot By The Adhesive Mass
Comfortable, Semi Resilent Forces
Gives Firmer Pressure More Than Spnge Rubbers
3. Absorbes Perspiration
Synarthrocic Synovial Joints Are….
Amphiarthrotic Synovial Joints Are….
Diarthrocic Synovial Joints Are….
What Happens During Osteochondrosis?
Degenerative Changes In Centers Of The Epiphyses
What Happens During Osteoarthritis?
Cartilage Is Worn Away
Build New Bone On Outside Of Bone
Increase Medullary Cavity By Breaking Down Boney Tissue
What Is Metaplasia?
Conversion Of One Kind Of Tissue To Another Form
What Is Dysplasia?
The Abnormal Development Of Tissue
Lack Of Blood Supply To Body Part
What Is Raynauds Phenomenon?
A Condition When Cold Exposure Causes Vasospasm Of Digital Arteries
Describe Open Kinetic Chain
When Foot Or Hand Is Not In Contact With Ground Or Other Surface
Describe Closed Kinetic
Chain Foot Or Hand Is Weight Bearing
Where Are The Intracapsular Ligaments Located?
Located Inside Of The Joint Capsule
Where Are The Extracapsular Ligaments Located?
Located Outside The Joint Capsule, They Have A Poor Blood supply
TFCC separates the ________ and inferior _____ joints of the wrist
The core is also known as the _____-_____-hip complex
__________ is the ability to determine the position of a joint in space
The anconeus _______ the elbow
Intervertebral disks are formed by a tough, dense outer layer, the ______, surrounding a flexible inner layer, the ______.
annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus
The entire length of the spine is reinforced by the ______ ligaments.
anterior and posterior longitudinal
T/F. The posterior branches of the L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots converge to form the sciatic nerve.
False, femoral nerve
The erector spine is composed of thee pairs of muscles; from lateral to medial these are: the ______, the ______, and the ______.
iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
The posterior margin of the vertebral canal is formed by the ______ ______, a pair of elastic ligaments connecting the lamina of on vertebra to the lamina of the vertebrae above it.
Speech impairment caused by a brain lesion is termed: ______.
Diseases that affect the spinal cord are termed: ______.
An accumulation of air in the pleural cavity that disrupts the lung’s ability to expand and draw in oxygen is termed: ______.
A large sac filled with air or fluid having the potential to rupture is termed a: ______.
Air hunger marked by labored or difficult breathing; may be normal occurrence after exertion or an abnormal occurrence indicating cardiac or respiratory distress is termed: ______.
T/F. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system and assists with homeostasis through the regulation of thirst, temperature, fluid valance, and blood pressure.
The _____ is the primary component of striated skeletal muscle.
The motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers make up what?
Fast-twitch muscle fibers are primarily used for what?
What is the formula for target heart rate?
What is an isometric contraction?
When the muscle is contracting without lengthening or shortening
What part of the body is responsible for thermoregulation?
The theory that the bones and muscles will adapt to changes placed on the body is known as what?
What organ becomes enlarged with mononucleosis?
What could hematuria indicate?
Where is smooth muscle generally found?
Is the Kreb's cycle used anaerobically or aerobically?
What is forced vital capacity?
The total volume of air that can be exhaled
. What is released from glycolysis?
ADP and PO4
What is the krebs cycle?
a process that occurs in the mitochondria that converts ADP to energy rich ATP
What are the borders of the anatomical snuffbox?
abductor pollicus longus/ extensor pollicus brevis, extensor pollicus longus, scaphoid
What is located in the Lower Right Quadrant?
Appendix, ureter, Bladder, Colon, Gonads
How do you calculate maximal HR?
220- AGE in YRS
What is the functioning component of a muscle?