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Flashcards in Anatomy/Phys Deck (87):
1

List the normal pathway for systemic circulation?

Left ventricle-> aorta-> body-> systemic veins-> superior/inferior vena cava -> right atrium

2

List the pathway for pulmonary circulation?

Right ventricle->pulmonary artery-> lungs-> pulmonary veins-> left atrium

3

Which pancreatic cells are the most plentiful?

cells producing glucagon

4

What is the refractory period

Time during which a neuron cannot generate another action potential. Sodium channels are closed and cannot be reopened

5

What is glycolysis

The breakdown of glucose into two molecules of 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. A net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH molecules

6

What is the Krebs Cycle

Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxid to form acetyl-CoA. When acetyl-CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide in the Krebs cycle, chemical energy is release and captured in the form of NADH, FADH2, and ATP

7

What is the electron transport chain

It allows the release of the large amount of chemical energy stored in reduced NAD+ and reduced FAD. The energy released is captured in the form of ATP

8

What is the equation for blood pressure

Cardiac output x peripheral resistance

9

How would you measure blood oxygen saturation? (SpO2)?

Pulse oximeter (noninvasive)

10

What is a normal percentage of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin?

90% to 100%

11

What does the axial skeleton consist of?

Skull, spinal column, ribs, and sternum

12

What is Osteon

Structural unit of compact bone

13

what is Fibrocartilage

Greater amount of collagen fibers

14

Where can fibrocartilage be found

Interpubic, discs, and menisci

15

What is Elastic Cartilage

Collagen and elastin fibers

16

Where can elastic cartilage be found

epiglottis and outer ear

17

Organic Matrix is composed of…..

primarily collagen fibers

18

Inorganic Matrix is composed of…..

primarily mineral salts and calcium

19

What is Cortical Bone?

Compact bone that has an ordered and dense arrangement

20

Where is cortical bone located?

primarily in the shafts of long bones

21

What Does The Appendicular Skeleton Consist Of?

Upper Extremities, Lower Extremities, And Pelvic Girdle

22

What Is Nonfeasance/Omission?

Where An Individual Fails To Perform A Legal Duty

23

What Is Malfeasance/Commission?

Where Commit An Act That Is Not Legally Able To Perform

24

Describe Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers

Type 1 Fibers
More Resistant To Fatigue

25

What Is A Epiphyseal Plate?

Growth Plates, Made Up Of Cartilage

26

Define Conduction

Heat Loss Or Heat Gain Through Physical Contact

27

Define Convection

Heat Loss Or Heat Gain Through Circulatory Medium

28

What Is Cartilage

Connective Tissue

29

What Is Cartilage Composed Of

Cartilage Cells And Matrix

30

What Are Chondroblasts

Cartilage Builders

31

What Are Chondrocytes

Mature Chondroblasts

32

What Is The Purpose Of Osteoblasts

Build Bone Tissue

33

What Is The Purpose Of Osteoclasts

Breakdown Or Resorb Bone Tissue

34

Osteocytes Are Found Where

Located Within Lacunae

35

Define Lacunae

Small Cavities Within A Bone

36

What Is The Role Of The Skeletal System?

Supports Body Weight
Transfers Body Weight
Body Movement
Organ Protection

37

Describe Adhesive Felt

Combining A Cushinoning Effect With The Ability To Be Help In A Specific Spot By The Adhesive Mass

38

Describe Felt

Comfortable, Semi Resilent Forces
Gives Firmer Pressure More Than Spnge Rubbers
3. Absorbes Perspiration

39

Synarthrocic Synovial Joints Are….

Immovable

40

Amphiarthrotic Synovial Joints Are….

Movable

41

Diarthrocic Synovial Joints Are….

Freely Movable

42

What Happens During Osteochondrosis?

Degenerative Changes In Centers Of The Epiphyses

43

What Happens During Osteoarthritis?

Cartilage Is Worn Away

44

Define Osteoblasts

Build New Bone On Outside Of Bone

45

Define Osteoclasts

Increase Medullary Cavity By Breaking Down Boney Tissue

46

What Is Metaplasia?

Conversion Of One Kind Of Tissue To Another Form

47

What Is Dysplasia?

The Abnormal Development Of Tissue

48

Describe Ischemia.

Lack Of Blood Supply To Body Part

49

What Is Raynauds Phenomenon?

A Condition When Cold Exposure Causes Vasospasm Of Digital Arteries

50

Describe Open Kinetic Chain

When Foot Or Hand Is Not In Contact With Ground Or Other Surface

51

Describe Closed Kinetic

Chain Foot Or Hand Is Weight Bearing

52

Where Are The Intracapsular Ligaments Located?

Located Inside Of The Joint Capsule

53

Where Are The Extracapsular Ligaments Located?

Located Outside The Joint Capsule, They Have A Poor Blood supply

54

TFCC separates the ________ and inferior _____ joints of the wrist

Radiocarpal, radioulnar

55

The core is also known as the _____-_____-hip complex

Lumbo-Pelvic

56

__________ is the ability to determine the position of a joint in space

Proprioception

57

The anconeus _______ the elbow

Extends

58

Intervertebral disks are formed by a tough, dense outer layer, the ______, surrounding a flexible inner layer, the ______.

annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus

59

The entire length of the spine is reinforced by the ______ ligaments.

anterior and posterior longitudinal

60

T/F. The posterior branches of the L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots converge to form the sciatic nerve.

False, femoral nerve

61

The erector spine is composed of thee pairs of muscles; from lateral to medial these are: the ______, the ______, and the ______.

iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

62

The posterior margin of the vertebral canal is formed by the ______ ______, a pair of elastic ligaments connecting the lamina of on vertebra to the lamina of the vertebrae above it.

ligamentum flavum

63

Speech impairment caused by a brain lesion is termed: ______.

dysphasia

64

Diseases that affect the spinal cord are termed: ______.

myelopathy

65

An accumulation of air in the pleural cavity that disrupts the lung’s ability to expand and draw in oxygen is termed: ______.

pneumothorax

66

A large sac filled with air or fluid having the potential to rupture is termed a: ______.

bleb

67

Air hunger marked by labored or difficult breathing; may be normal occurrence after exertion or an abnormal occurrence indicating cardiac or respiratory distress is termed: ______.

dyspnea

68

T/F. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system and assists with homeostasis through the regulation of thirst, temperature, fluid valance, and blood pressure.

True

69

The _____ is the primary component of striated skeletal muscle.

Muscle fiber

70

The motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers make up what?

Motor unit

71

Fast-twitch muscle fibers are primarily used for what?

Aerobic exercise

72

What is the formula for target heart rate?

220-age

73

What is an isometric contraction?

When the muscle is contracting without lengthening or shortening

74

What part of the body is responsible for thermoregulation?

Hypothalamus

75

The theory that the bones and muscles will adapt to changes placed on the body is known as what?

Wolff's Law

76

What organ becomes enlarged with mononucleosis?

Spleen

77

What could hematuria indicate?

Kidney injury

78

Where is smooth muscle generally found?

Organs

79

Is the Kreb's cycle used anaerobically or aerobically?

Aerobically

80

What is forced vital capacity?

The total volume of air that can be exhaled

81

. What is released from glycolysis?

ADP and PO4

82

What is the krebs cycle?

a process that occurs in the mitochondria that converts ADP to energy rich ATP

83

What are the borders of the anatomical snuffbox?

abductor pollicus longus/ extensor pollicus brevis, extensor pollicus longus, scaphoid

84

What is located in the Lower Right Quadrant?

Appendix, ureter, Bladder, Colon, Gonads

85

How do you calculate maximal HR?

220- AGE in YRS

86

What is the functioning component of a muscle?

sarcomere

87

What are three things bind to Actin to expose the myosin binding sites?

tropinin, tropomyosin, and calcium