Anemia/Hematopoietic growth factors Flashcards Preview

Pharm > Anemia/Hematopoietic growth factors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anemia/Hematopoietic growth factors Deck (23):
1

oral iron therapy
type
response
adverse

ferrous
1-3 months
-nausea, vomiting, black stools

2

parenteral iron therapy (IM or IV)
type
indication
adverse

iron dextran, iron sucrose, iron gluconate
-indicated when oral iron is not tolerated, post GI resection, malabsorption syndromes

-adverse effects: pain, tissue staining (IM), headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, back/joint pain, allergic responses, anaphylaxis

3

What happens in acute iron toxicity and chronic iron toxicity? Treatment?

acute iron toxicity
-usually due to over ingestion of iron tablets
-could be fatal in children
-necrotizing gastroenteritis
Treat: gastric aspiration, gastric lavage-phosphate or carbonate solutions, iron chelation (deferoxamine)


chronic toxicity
-seen in hemochromatosis, multiple red cell transfusions
-organ failure: can deposit in heart, lung, liver
treatment:
intermittent phlebotomy (if no anemia)
-iron chelation (deferoxamine, deferasirox)

4

What are the active forms of B12?

deoxyadenosyl cobalamin, methylcobalamin

5

What are the prodrugs given if of B12, How are these drugs given?
Response time

cyanocobalamin
hydroxycobalamin
Parenteral injections (IM)
1-2 months

6

How is folic acid deficiency treated?

oral folic acid

7

How is oral B12 therapy?

works even with IF deficiency
really good

8

What is the relationship between erythropoietin normally, what is it in renal failure?

inverse relationship
-but both low in chronic renal failure

9

What are indications of erythropoietin therapy?

1. chronic renal failure
2. patients with aplastic anemia, leukemia, HIV/AIDS associated anemias, cancer
3. anemia of prematurity
4. post phlebotomy

10

How is epoetin alfa (epogen) administered? How long does it take to work? What are toxicities?

IV or subcutaneous injection
Retics 10 days
hemoglobin increase in 2-6 weeks
Toxicity: hypertension, thrombotic complications, allergic reactions, increased risk of tumor progression or recurrence

11

G-CSF and GM-CSF are growth factors that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of what?

myeloid cells

12

What does GM-CSF also stimulate?

proliferation and differentiation of erythroid and megakaryocytic cells

13

G-CSF also promotes what with hematopoietic stem cells?

promotes release of HSC from the bone marrow into the periphery

14

Recombinant G-CSF (filgrastim) is produced by a bacterial system, what is a drug that uses filgrastim?

pegfilgrastim
-filgrastim conjugated to polyethylene glycol
-longer half life

15

Recombinant GM-CSF (sargramostim) is produced by in what type of system?

yeast

16

When is G-CSF/ GM-CSF indicated?

1. After intensive chemotherapy
-faster increase in neutrophil counts
-decreased duration of neutropenia
-decreased febrile neutropenia, antibiotic use, hospitalization

2. Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia

3. treatment of congenital neutropenia, cyclic neutropenia, neutropenia associated with myelodysplasia and aplastic anemia

4. high dose chemo with autologous stem cell rescue

5. mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells for autologous transplant (G-CSF preferred)

17

What are the toxicities for G-CSF and GM-CSF?

G-CSF: bone pain, rarely splenic rupture

GM-CSF: fever, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral edema, pleural/pericardial effusion

Both: allergic reactions

In general G-CSF is preferred

18

What does Interleukin 11 do?

-promotes proliferation of megakaryocytic progenitors
-increases peripheral platelet counts

19

What are the indications for interleukin 11? toxicities?

1. patients with thrombocytopepnia after chemo
-prevent adverse reactions of platetet transfusion
-if patients are refractory to platelet transfusion

2. usually given for 2-3 weeks after chemo or until platelets rise above 50,000

Toxicity: fatigue, headache, dizziness, dyspnea, arrhythmiasf, hypokalemia

20

Romiplostim

agent for thrombocytopenia-treat ITP

-peptibody-2 domains: peptide domain that binds the TPO receptor (Mpl) and an antibody Fc domain that increases half life

21

Eltrombopag

agent for thrombocytopenia-treat ITP
-small molecule throboproteitin-receptor agonist (Mpl)

22

What are adverse effects of romiplostim and eltrombopag?

headache, myalgia, and bone marrow fibrosis
-not a myeloproliferative disorder

23

What can treat aplastic anemia?

eltrombopag
-receptors also expressed on stem cells
-cells come back to bone marrow, and stay back when off the drug
-more of all types of cells because more stem cells?