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Flashcards in Anesthesia Deck (31):
1

Important pre-anesthesia questions

Fasting?
Current condition?
Changes in condition since scheduling?
Current in preventive care?
What is the Scheduled procedure?
Medications?

2

Effects of anesthesia

Light to heavy sedation, local anesthesia, general anesthesia, muscle relaxation, analgesia, combination

3

General anesthesia

Unconsciousness and insensibility to feeling and pain induced by administration of anesthetic agents given alone or in combination

4

Uses of general anesthesia

General surgery or painful procedures without patient movement or personnel injury

5

Anesthetic induction

The process used to take the patient from a state of consciousness to general anesthesia

6

Anesthetic maintenance

The process used to keep the patient under general anesthesia until recovery

7

Local anesthesia

Loss of sensation in a localized body region or part induced by administration of a drug or other agent without loss of consciousness

8

Use of local anesthetic

Used for procedures that do not require the patient to be unconscious and for adjunct pain control

9

Premedication (preanesthesia)

Administration of an agent or agents before induction of general anesthesia to calm and relax the patient, ease induction and recovery, minimize adverse effects, reduce the amount of general anesthetic needed, provide muscle relaxation, provide pain control

10

Sedation

A state of calm or drowsiness

11

Tranquilization

A state of relaxation and reduced anxiety

12

Neuroleptanalgesia

State of profound sedation and analgesia produced by simultaneous administration of an opioid and a tranquilizer

13

Uses of neuroleptanalgesia

Perform minor procedures such as wound treatment or radiography, and to induce general anesthesia in compromised patients

14

Balanced anesthesia

Concurrent administration of two or more anesthetic drugs with complementary effects

15

Reasons patient preparation is important

-Minimize the likelihood of preventable complications (i.e. aspiration)
-All tx of any problems that may endanger the patient (i.e. Dehydration)
-Allow the vet to make anesthetic drug choices based on facts about the patient's condition
-make the anesthetist aware of potential problems that the patient may experience during the procedure

16

Fasting recommendations

Dogs and cats: 8-12 hours food, 2-4 water
Horses: 8-12 food, 0-2 water
Cattle: 24-48 food, 8-12 water
Small ruminants: 12-18 food, 8-12 water

17

Physical assessment

Focus of nervous, cardiovascular, pulmonary systems.
-level of consciousness/mentation
-general body condition (BCS, hydration)
-weakness, abnormalities, recumbency
-parasites, wounds, tumors, external lesions
-body orifices for external signs of dz: diarrhea, nasal discharge, hematuria, vaginal discharge
-Vital signs/TPR stats
-respiratory effort
-auscultate lungs
-palpate pulse and auscultate heart

18

Purpose of diagnostic tests w/anesthesia

Uncover abnormalities that may impair the patient's ability to compensate, that may lead to unanticipated complications, or that may impair the patient's ability to eliminate the anesthetics

19

Patient stabilization

Tx/correction of dehydration, anemia, cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory compromise, major organ failure, electrolyte/acid-base imbalance.

May involve antibiotics, analgesics, fluids, blood, oxygen, etc.

20

Physical status classification: P1

Minimal risk. Normal healthy patient.

Patients undergoing elective procedures

21

Physical status classification: P2

Low risk. Patient w/mild systemic disease.

Neonatal, geriatric, obese, brachycephalic patients.
Mild dehydration.
Skin tumor removal.

22

Physical status classification: P3

Moderate risk. Patient with severe systemic disease.

Anemia. Moderate dehydration. Compensated major organ disease.

23

Physical status classification: P4

High risk. Patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life.

Ruptured bladder, internal hemorrhage, pneumothorax, pyometra

24

Physical status classification: P5

Extreme risk. Moribund patient that is not expected to survive without the operation.

Severe head trauma. Pulmonary embolus. GDV. End-stage major organ failure.

25

Objective of anesthesia

Produce loss of sensation in the whole body, or a specific body part or region, and to provide muscle relaxation and alteration of consciousness appropriate to the procedure. Patient safety must be preserved and adverse effects minimized. Pay special attention to respiratory and cardiovascular

26

Anesthetic depth stage 1

Conscious/disoriented
HR/RR normal to increased
Eyes central pupils normal size
PLR's normal
All reflexes present

27

Anesthetic depth stage 2

Excitement stage.
Struggling, vocalizing, paddling
Patient can release epinephrine due to stress causing cardiac arrhythmias

28

Anesthetic depth stage 3: plane 1

Light anesthesia
Unconscious
May be gagging/swallowing, but decreased
HR/RR normal w/strong pulse
Eyes may rotate or stay central
Pupil size normal/partially constricted
PLR's decreased
palpebral/pedal reflexes decreased

29

Anesthetic depth stage 3: plane 2

Surgical anesthesia
Immobilized
HR/RR/BP slightly decrease
RR may be shallow
Eyes often ventromedial
Pupil size normal
PLR's slow
Reflexes decreased or absent

30

Anesthetic depth stage 3: plane 3 or 4

Deep anesthesia or near death
Immobilized
HR/BP decreased
Weak pulse
Shallow breaths
CRT increased
Pale MM
Eyes central
Pupils moderately dilated
PLR's slow or absent
Reflexes absent and muscle tone flaccid

31

Anesthetic depth stage 4

Moribund - anesthetic overdose
Immobilized
Cardiovascular collapse
Weak pulse, barely palpable