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Flashcards in VT 117 Deck (85):
0

Bacteriology

Involves pathogenic organisms

1

What involves pathogenic organisms?

Bacteriology

2

Immunohematology

Blood bank

3

What involves the blood bank?

Immunohematology

4

Serology

Used to detect disease through antigen/antibody reactions

5

Used to detect disease through antigen/antibody reactions

Serology

6

Histology

Involves exam of tissues

7

Involves exam of tissues

Histology

8

Hematology

Includes cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and coagulation

9

Includes cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and coagulation

Hematology

10

Microbiology

Study of microscopic organisms

11

Study of microscopic organisms

Microbiology

12

What are characteristics of an in-house lab?

Good lighting/ventilation, washable surfaces only, low traffic area with storage, refrigerator/outlets/equipment, safety equipment, biohazard and sharps containers

13

What are some safety devices used in a lab?

Eyewash station, fire extinguisher, fire blanket, hoods

14

Safety concerns relating to dress/attire

Sturdy shoes, lab coats and scrubs, control hair, trim nails, minimal jewelry, dispose of sharps objects appropriately and immediately, wear gloves w/samples and chemicals

15

Accuracy

how closely results agree with the true quantitative value of the constituent

16

how closely results agree with the true quantitative value of the constituent.

Accuracy

17

Precision

the magnitude of random errors and the reproducibility of measurements

18

the magnitude of random errors and the reproducibility of measurements

Precision

19

Reliability

the ability of a method to be accurate and precise

20

the ability of a method to be accurate and precise

Reliability

21

Quality Control

procedures established to ensure that clinical testing is performed in compliance with accepted standards and that the processes and results are properly documented

Accuracy, precision, reliability; equipment maintenance; pre-, post-, analytic variables

22

Why is quality control important in a lab?

It keeps diagnostic reliability - so you can be sure that you are getting accurate results and giving a correct reading so the animal can be properly treated

23

What to do if you get a corrosive substance in your eye?

Rinse it with the eye wash for 15 minutes

24

pH levels

< 7 acidic
= 7 neutral
> 7 alkaline

25

What does the pH measuring?

The hydrogen ion concentration in a solution

26

What is meniscus?

a curve in the surface of a liquid when it touches another material

27

What is supernatant?

The liquid portion at the top of sediment after the solution has been centrifuged

28

The liquid portion at the top of sediment after the solution has been centrifuged

Supernatant

29

a curve in the surface of a liquid when it touches another material

Meniscus

30

Refractometer

Total Solids Meter, measures the refractive index of a solution to determine the specific gravity (urine and other fluids) or the protein concentration (plasma and other fluids)

31

Factors for autoclaving

appropriate PPE, appropriate packaging of the materials, appropriate materials, be careful of steam when opened and let cool

32

Centrifuge - what is and does

used to separate substances of different densities that are in a solution. The centrifuge spins samples at high speeds, which pushes the heaviest components in the sample to the bottom of the tube according to their densities. Liquid components are layered above the solid components, also according to their densities. When solid and liquid components are present in the sample, the liquid portion is referred to as the supernatant, and the solid component is referred to as the sediment

33

Metric unit

Kilo, hecto, deca, Basic Unit, deci, centi, milli
k h da L/g/m d c m
1000. 100. 10. 1. 0.1 0.01 0.001

34

2% = ? mg/mL

2 g / 100 mL
2000 mg / 100 mL
20 mg/mL

35

kg to lbs

Multiply by 2.2

36

700 mL of 30% alcohol is needed. How many mL of 70% alcohol is required to make it?

V1 = (C2)(V2) / C1
V1 = (30)(700)/70
V1 = 300 mL

To find the water: subtract that from the mL needed 700-300=400 mL water

37

A dog weighs 17.6 lb. Needs 20 mg/kg of medication. How many mg required?

The concentration is 100 mg/mL. How many mL needed?

Dose = (weight)(dosage)/concentration

17.6/2.2= 8 kg x 20 mg = 160 mg

8 x 20 / 100 = 1.6 mL

38

What are the six rights of an injection?

Route, patient, medication, dose, time, frequency

39

What are three sites to draw blood from a dog?

Cephalon, jugular, lateral saphenous

40

Three sites to draw blood from a cat

Cephalon, jugular, femoral

41

Three major rules for handling urine

Clean container, labeled Accurately and fully, analyzed within 1 hour of collection

42

What is the difference between plasma and serum?

Plasma is the liquid portion of un-coagulated blood and serum is the liquid portion of coagulated blood

43

What is lipemia?

The presence of fat in the serum or plasma, milky white?

44

When the plasma/serum is milky white, what is that?

Lipemia - fat in the liquid. Animal just ate.

45

Yellow cap tube

Contains no additive, used for serum, sterile

46

Contains no additive, used for serum, sterile

Yellow cap tube

47

Plain red top tube

Clot tube, serum. No additive. Sit 15-30 min for clotting before centrifuge. Used for chemistry and serological assays

48

Clot tube, serum. No additive. Sit 15-30 min for clotting before centrifuge. Used for chemistry and serological assays

Red top tube

49

Tiger/Marbled top tube

Serum. Silicon gel creates a barrier between clotted cells and serum. Chemistry and serological assays but is restricted by some tests.

50

Serum. Silicon gel creates a barrier between clotted cells and serum. Chemistry and serological assays but is restricted by some tests.

Tiger/marbled top tube

51

Lavender top tube

Plasma. Contains EDTA. Commonly used for CBC's. Mix blood sample well upon collection to prevent clotting.

52

Plasma. Contains EDTA. Commonly used for CBC's. Mix blood sample well upon collection to prevent clotting.

Lavender top

53

Green top tube

Plasma. Contains heparin or lithium. Used for blood chemistry assays.

54

Plasma. Contains heparin or lithium. Used for blood chemistry assays.

Green top tube

55

Light blue top tube

Plasma. Contains sodium citrate. Used for coagulation assays. Timing for clot.

56

Plasma. Contains sodium citrate. Used for coagulation assays. Timing for clot.

Light blue top tube

57

Grey top tube

Plasma. Contains sodium fluoride. Used for glucose assays. Timing of clot.

58

Plasma. Contains sodium fluoride. Used for glucose assays. Timing of clot.

Grey top tube

59

Hematocrit

PCV or HCT. Indicates the proportion of cells and fluids in the blood. Determines anemia and dehydration.

60

Normal hematocrit levels for dogs and cats

Dogs 37-55%
cats 30-45%

61

Hematocrit quality control

Always run two tubes, results within 2% of each other

62

Syringe types

Luer (slip tip)
Luer lock (threaded to hold needles)

63

What supplies are needed for venipuncture?

Needle, holder, collection tube. Isopropyl alcohol.

64

Hemolytic serum/plasma means?

It's pink or red, free hemoglobin from ruptured RBC's

65

It's pink or red, free hemoglobin from ruptured RBC's

Hemolytic

66

Icteric plasma/serum means?

Amber to orange-brown in color. Presence of bilirubin.

67

Amber to orange-brown in color. Presence of bilirubin.

Icteric plasma/serum

68

What is PCV?

Packed cell volume. How much space is occupied by RBC's in the blood

69

How do you get a TP reading and what is TP?

Total protein. Refractometer after spinning the hematocrit tube

70

What are the blood smear layers and what do you look for in each?

Body (nothing)
Mono-layer (rainbow - WBC's, RBC's, mostly look here)
Feathering (Platelet clumping and heart worm)

71

What do you evaluate in a urinalysis?

Color, transparency (clear, cloudy, flocculent - suspended particles, turbid - opaque), odor, foam

72

What do abnormal odors in urine mean?

Putrid: ammonia or bacteria
Strong: intact male cat
Sweet/Fruity: ketones or glucose

73

What do the different foam colors mean in urine?

White foam, lots: large amount of protein
Yellow or green: bile pigments
Small amount white foam: normal

74

What are two procedures for urinalysis?

Refractometer for specific gravity
Reagent strip - different readings, match colors for results reading

75

What do you look for in a urinalysis sediment exam?

Cells, crystals, parasites, casts

76

How do you perform a sediment procedure for urinalysis?

Spin sample low and slow, pour off supernatant, mix remaining sediment, place a drop and observe under the microscope. Observe 10 fields at 10x for casts. Observe at 40x for everything else

77

Gram negative vs gram positive bacteria. Go!

Negative is pink. Positive is purple.

78

What is the difference between bacteria and viruses?

Bacteria are single-called organisms that are alive. Some are good and some are bad. Can almost always be cured. Larger than viruses.

Viruses are acellular and requires a living host to survive. It always causes disease. Can be vaccinated against but cannot be cured - must be survived.

79

Preanalytic variables

Biologic (inherent to patient)

Nonbiologic (clerical errors, sample collection and handling)

80

Biologic (inherent to patient)

Nonbiologic (clerical errors, sample collection and handling)

Preanalytic variables

81

Postanalytic variables

Data entry and record keeping problems

82

Data entry and record keeping problems

Postanalytic variables

83

Analytic variables

affect the procedure by which the analyte is measured by the instrument

84

affect the procedure by which the analyte is measured by the instrument

Analytic variables