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Flashcards in Dentistry Final Deck (94):
1

General sequence for complete Prophy

Oral cavity evaluated, large pieces of calculus removed, periodontal area probed for pocket depth & presence of subgingival calculus.
Subgingival calculus removed, teeth evaluated, degree of disease evaluated, further diagnostic tests performed.

2

Mesaticephalic

Medium. Most common head type. Labradors and DSH, ex.

3

Brachycephalic

Short wide heads. Commonly results in crowded and rotated premolars.
Boxers, Persians ex.

4

Dolichocephalic

Long narrow heads.
Collies, seal point Siamese ex.

5

Maxilla

Upper jaw.
Incisal and maxillary bones hold the teeth.

6

Hard palate

Portion of the roof of the mouth that consists of hard bone. Covered with mucous membrane w/irregular ridges called "Rugae palatinae"

7

Soft palate

Posterior portion of roof of the mouth, no underlying bone. Separates the oral cavity from the pharynx.

8

Lateral palatine fold or fauca

The area in which the two jaws join in the back of the oral cavity

9

Mandible

Lower jaw. Covered by muscle and skin ventrally, mucous membrane becomes the gingiva at the mucogingival line

10

Temporomandibular joint

Hinge joint that joins mandible to maxilla

11

Vestibule of oral cavity

Part of oral mucosa between the cheeks or lips and the alveolar ridge (teeth/gingiva)

12

Crown

Part of the tooth above the gumline covered in enamel

13

Enamel

Hardest substance in the body. Covers the crown of the tooth, above the gumline. Produced by ameloblasts.

14

Tooth neck

Indentation close to the gumline where the enamel thins.
Also called cementoenamel junction or cervical line

15

Tooth root

Underneath the gumline, sits in the socket (alveolus)

16

Tooth apex

Deepest part of the root.

17

Prophylaxis or Prophy

Prevention or protective treatment for disease

18

Where blood vessels and nerves enter the tooth

Apical delta (small channels)
Apical foramen (larger canals)

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Cusp

Tip or pointed prominence on the occlusal surface of the crown

20

Dentine/dentin

Make up the bulk of the tooth, produced by odontoblasts

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Pulp chamber

Innermost portion of the tooth. Lined by odontoblasts and contains nerves, blood vessels, different cells and fibrous tissue

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Root canal

Portion of the pulp chamber below the gumline

23

Keratinization

Hardening and tighter attachment of the epithelial tissue of the attached gingiva that makes it able to withstand chewing

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Free gingiva

The portion of gingiva that is not directly attached to the tooth or supporting structure

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Free gingival groove

Slight groove between free and attached gingiva

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Sulcus

Area between free gingiva and tooth when healthy and without a space

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Pocket

Space between free gingiva and tooth. Considered diseased tissue when periodontal disease is present

28

Alveolar mucosa

Less densely keratinized gingival tissue covering the bones

29

Attachment apparatus

Structures that support the tooth: periodontal ligament, cementum, sharpey's fibers, alveolar bone

30

Periodontal ligament

Fibrous structure that holds tooth In place in the socket

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Cementum

Material that can repair itself if damaged and attaches periodontal ligament ti the tooth

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Alveolar bone

Bone of the jaw in which the tooth rests

33

Dental formula for puppy

2x(3/3 i, 1/1 c, 3/3p)=28

34

Time line for puppy teeth

Primary incisors erupt at 3-4 weeks, canines at 3 weeks; premolars from 4-12 weeks.
Fall out (exfoliate) about 1-2 weeks before adult teeth eruption

35

Adult dog dental formula

2x(3/3 I, 1/1 C, 4/4 P, 2/3 M)=42

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Incisors

Used for gnawing and grooming

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Canine teeth

Used for holding and tearing

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Premolars

Used for cutting and breaking up

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Molars

Used for grinding

40

Dog adult teeth timeline

Incisors erupt at 3-5 months, canine & premolar at 4-6 months, molars at 5-7 months

41

Kitten dental formula

2x(3/3 i, 1/1 c, 3/2 p)=26

42

Kitten teeth timeline

Incisors erupt at 2-3 weeks, canines at 3-4 weeks, premolars at 3-6 weeks

43

Cat dental formula

2x(3/3 I, 1/1 C, 3/2 P, 1/1 M)=30

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Cat adult teeth timeline

Incisors erupt at 3-4 months, canines at 4-5, premolars at 4-6 months, molars at 4-5 months

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Dog teeth with one root

Incisors, canines, first premolar, mandibular third molar
(101-105, 201-205, 301-305, 311, 401-405, 411)

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Dog teeth with 2 roots

Maxillary second and third premolars; mandibular second, third, and fourth premolars; mandibular first and second molars
(106, 107, 206, 207, 306-310, 496-410)

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Dog teeth with three roots

Maxillary fourth premolar, and first and second molars
(108-110, 208-210)

48

Cat teeth with one root

Incisors, canines, maxillary second premolar
101-104, 106, 201-204, 206, 301-304, 401-404)

49

Cat teeth with two roots

Maxillary third premolar, mandibular third and fourth premolars, mandibular first molar
(107, 207, 307-309, 407-409)

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Cat teeth with three roots

Maxillary fourth premolar
(108, 208)

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Tooth in the cat with a varying number of roots

Maxillary first molar (feline)
(109, 209)

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Furcation

The area in which the roots join the crown. In two-rooted it is bi-, in three-rooted it is Tri-

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labial (vestibule)

The direction toward the outside of the teeth

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Buccal (vestibule)

Toward the cheeks

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Palatal/lingual

Toward the middle of the mouth
Palatal for the maxillary
Lingual for the mandible

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Mesial

Side of the tooth closest to the center line of the dental arch

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Distal

Side of the tooth farthest from the center line of the dental arch

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Coronal

Direction towards the crown

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Apical

Toward the root of the tooth

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Interproximal area

Area between two teeth

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Occlusion (teeth)

The way teeth fit together. Cats and dogs have a "sectorial" one with chewing occurring on the sides of the teeth.

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Anatomic numbering order

Right/left, maxillary/mandibular, ordinal number, type of tooth

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Teeth missing in a cat

Maxillary First premolar, mandibular first and second premolars (105, 205, 305, 306, 405, 406)

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Rule of four and nine

The canine tooth is always 04 and the first molar is always 09 regardless of how many teeth are actually in the mouth

65

Sharpey's fibers

Matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong collagenous fibers connecting periosteum to bone

66

Oral mucosa

The tissue that lines most of the oral cavity outside the mucogingival line, ends at the lips.

67

Normal sulcus depths

0-3 mm in dogs
0-1 mm in cats

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Enamel hypoplasia

A defect in enamel production

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Mucogingival line/junction

Junction between the gingiva attached to the underlying bone (attached gingiva) and the flap overlying the tooth (free gingiva)

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Gingival recession

Free gingival margin recedes towards the tooth root and the neck/root structure becomes exposed

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Plaque

Bacterial layer that forms on the teeth

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Tartar/Calculus

Dead bacteria on the tooth that has calcified

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Disclosing solution

Inspects for plaque and calculus that was missed during the prophy

74

Fracture class 1

Enamel fx. Chip fracture, enamel loss. Most do not require tx

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Fracture class 2

Uncomplicated crown fx. Enamel and sentinel, but no pulp exposure.

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Fracture class 2b

Complicated crown fx. Enamel, dentine, and pulp exposure

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Fracture class 3

Uncomplicated crown-root fx. Fracture of the crown and root that does not expose pulp

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Fracture class 3b

Complicated crown-root fx. Fracture of the crown and root that exposes pulp - aka slab fracture

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Fracture class 4

Root fracture, non salvageable

80

Scissor bite

Mandibular teeth in contact with palatal side of maxillary teeth

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Anodontia/adontia

Absence of teeth

82

Diastema

Space between two adjacent teeth not in contact with each other

83

Interceptive orthodontics

Extracting primary teeth, prevent malocclusion, removes possible obstruction

84

Luxation

Partial displacement of the tooth

85

Avulsion

Complete displacement of the tooth

86

Oral nasal fistula

Abnormal opening into the nasal cavity

87

Granulomas

Benign, caused by periodontal disease

88

Iatrogenic orthodontic disease

Attempts to correct orthodontic problems

89

Gingivitis

Inflammation of the gingiva

90

Periodontitis

Infection of the structures surrounding the tooth (periodontium)

91

Endodontics

Root canal therapy

92

Abrasions

Friction on teeth due to external objects (bars, toys, etc)

93

Attrition

Friction of teeth rubbing against each other due to occlusion

94

Gingival hyperplasia

Excessive gingiva