Musculoskeletal Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Structure Deck (187):
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Bone

Form of connective tissue, one of the hardiest tissues in the body.

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Form of connective tissue, one of the hardiest tissues in the body.

Bone

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Ossification

The formation of bone from fibrous tissue, continues until maturity

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The formation of bone from fibrous tissue, continues until maturity

Ossification

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Osteoblasts

Oste/o = bone, -blasts= immature

Immature bone cells that produce bony tissue

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Immature bone cells that produce bony tissue

Osteoblasts
Oste/o = bone, -blasts= immature

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Osteoclasts

Phagocytic cells that eat away bony tissue from the medullary cavity if log bone

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Phagocytic cells that eat away bony tissue from the medullary cavity of long bone

Osteoclasts
Oste/o = bone, -class = break

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Osteocytes

Mature osteoblasts

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Mature osteoblasts

Osteocytes

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Hematopoietic

Producing red blood cells (such as red bone marrow)

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Producing red blood cells

Hematopoietic
Hemat/o = blood, -poietic= pertaining to formation

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Medullary cavity

Inner space

Of the long bone it contains yellow bone marrow

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Inner space

Medullary cavity

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Cartilage

A form of connective tissue more elastic than bone

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A form of connective tissue more elastic than bone

Cartilage

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Articular cartilage

Cartilage that covers the joint surfaces of bones

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Cartilage that covers the joint surfaces of bones

Articular cartilage

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Meniscus

Curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints and cushions forces applied to the joint

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Curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints and cushions forces applied to the joint

Meniscus

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Cortical bone

Hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone; also called compact bone

Cortex= bark or shell in Latin

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Hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone

Cortical or compact bone

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Cancellous bone

Lighter, less strong bone that is found in the ends and inner portions of long bones; also called spongy bone

Cancellous= latticework in Latin

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Lighter, less strong bone that is found in the ends and inner portions of long bones

Cancellous or spongy bone

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Epiphysis

Eh-pihf-ih-sihs

Wide end of a long bone, which is covered with articular cartilage and is composed of cancellous bone

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Wide end of a long bone, which is covered with articular cartilage and is composed of cancellous bone

Epiphysis

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Diaphysis

Shaft of a long bone that is composed mainly of compact bone

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Shaft of a long bone that is composed mainly of compact bone

Diaphysis

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Physis

Cartilage segment of long bone that involves growth of the bone; also called growth plate or epiphyseal cartilage

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Cartilage segment of long bone that involves growth of the bone

Physis, aka growth plate or epiphyseal cartilage

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Metaphysis

Wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis; in adult animals, it is considered part of the epiphysis

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Wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis; in adult animals, it is considered part of the epiphysis

Metaphysis

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Periosteum

Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone

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Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone

Periosteum

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Endosteum

Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the lining of the medullary cavity

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Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the lining of the medullary cavity

Endosteum

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Long bones

Bones consisting of a shaft, two ends, and a marrow cavity (ie, a femur)

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Bones consisting of a shaft, two ends, and a marrow cavity

Long bones

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Short bones

Cube-shaped bones with no marrow cavity (ie, carpal bones)

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Cube-shaped bones with no marrow cavity

Short bones

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Flat bones

Thin, flat bones (ie, pelvis)

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Thin, flat bones

Flat bones

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Pneumatic bones

Sinus-containing bones (ie, frontal bones)

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Sinus-containing bones

Pneumatic bones

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Irregular bones

Unpaired bones (ie, vertebrae)

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Unpaired bones

Irregular bones

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Sesamoid bones

Small bones embedded in tendon (ie, patella) the only exception is the distal sesamoid of the horse

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Small bones embedded in tendon

Sesamoid bones

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Joints or articulations

Connections between bones
Articulate means to join in a way that allows motion between parts

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Connections between bones

Joints or articulations

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Synarthroses

Joints that allow no movement. Usually united with fibrous connective tissue

Ex: sutures

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Joints that allow no movement

Synarthroses

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Amphiarthroses

Joints that allow slight movement

Ex: pelvis halves

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Joints that allow slight movement

Amphiarthroses

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Diarthroses

Joints that allow free movement

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Joints that allow free movement

Diarthroses

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Suture

A jagged line where bones join and form a non moveable joint (synarthroses) typically found in the skull

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A jagged line where bones join and form a non moveable joint, usually found in the skull

Suture

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Fontanelle

Soft spot remaining at the junction of sutures that usually closes after birth

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Soft spot remaining at the junction of sutures that usually closes after birth

Fontanelle

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Symphysis

Joint where two bones join and are held firmly together so that the function as one bone. Also called cartilaginous joints.

Mandibular symphysis or pubic symphysis, for example.

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Joint where two bones join and are held firmly together so that the function as one bone.

Symphysis or cartilaginous joint

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Synovial joint

Ball-and-socket joints. Aka, enarthrosis, spheroid joints.

Allow a wide range of movement in many directions.

Ex: hip and shoulder joints

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Joints that allow a wide range of movement in many directions (4 possible answers)

Synovial joints. Ball-and-socket joints. Aka, enarthrosis or spheroid joints

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Arthrodial or condyloid joints

Joints with oval projections that fit into a socket, suck as the carpal joints.

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Joints with oval projections that fit into a socket, suck as the carpal joints.

Arthrodial or condyloid joints

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Trochoid joints

Pulley-shaped joints. Ex: the connection between the atlas to the axis

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Pulley-shaped joints

Trochoid joints

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Hinge joints

Allow motion in one plane or direction
Ex: canine stifle or the elbow

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Allow motion in one plane or direction

Hinge joints

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Gliding joints

Move or glide over each other
Ex: radioulnar joint or between vertebrae

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Joints that move or glide over each other

Gliding joints

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Saddle joint

Only found in primates. Creates the opposable thumb: allows the thumb to flex, extend, abduct, circumduct.

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Joint found only in the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb of primates

Saddle joint

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Ligament

A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone to help stabilize joints

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A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone to help stabilize joints

Ligament

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Tendon

A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone to help the animal move

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A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone to help the animal move

Tendon

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Bursa

A fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas of friction

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A fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas of friction

Bursa

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Synovial membrane

Inner lining of the bursa and synovial joints that secretes synovial fluid

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Inner lining of the bursa and synovial joints that secretes synovial fluid

Synovial membrane

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Synovial fluid

Acts as a lubricant to make joint movement smooth

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Acts as a lubricant to make joint movement smooth

Synovial fluid

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Axial skeleton

The framework of the body that includes the skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum

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The framework of the body that includes the skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum

Axial skeleton

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Appendicular skeleton

Framework of the body that consists of the extremities, shoulders, pelvic girdle

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Framework of the body that consists of the extremities, shoulders, pelvic girdle

Appendicular skeleton

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Cranium

Portion of the skull that encloses the brain

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Portion of the skull that encloses the brain

Cranium

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Frontal bone

Forms the roof of the cranial cavity or front or cranial portion of the skull.

In some species the horn or cornual process arises from the frontal bone.

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Forms the roof of the cranial cavity or front or cranial portion of the skull.

Frontal bone

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Parietal bone

Paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity

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Paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity

Parietal bones

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Occipital bones

Forms the caudal aspect of the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum is located

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Forms the caudal aspect of the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum is located

Occipital bones

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Foramen and Magnum
Together...?

Foramen: opening in bone through which tissue passes
Magnum: large
Foramen Magnum: opening for the spinal cord in the cranium

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opening for the spinal cord in the cranium

Foramen Magnum

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Temporal bones

Paired bones that form the sides and base of the cranium

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Paired bones that form the sides and base of the cranium

Temporal bones

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Sphenoid bones

Paired bones that form part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of bony eye sockets

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Paired bones that form part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of bony eye sockets

Sphenoid bones

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Ethmoid bones

Forms the rostral part of the cranial cavity

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Forms the rostral part of the cranial cavity

Ethmoid bones

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Incisive bones

Forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edges of the nares

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Forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edges of the nares

Incisive bones

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Pterygoid bones

Forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx

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Forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx

Pterygoid bones

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Sinuses

Air or fluid filled spaces in the skull

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Air or fluid filled spaces in the skull

Sinuses

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Brachycephalic

Dogs have short, wide heads like pugs or Pekingese

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Dogs have short, wide heads like pugs or Pekingese

Brachycephalic

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Dolicephalic

Dogs have narrow, long heads like collies or greyhounds

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Dogs have narrow, long heads like collies or greyhounds

Dolicephalic

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Mesocephalic

Dogs have average width heads like labs. Also called mesaticephalic

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Dogs have average width heads like labs

Mesocephalic or mesaticephalic

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Zygomatic bones

Forms the orbit and cheekbones, projections from the temporal and zygomatic bone form he zygomatic arch

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Forms the orbit and cheekbones

Zygomatic bones

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Palatine bones

Forms part of the hard palate

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Forms part of the hard palate

Palatine bones

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Lacrimal bones

Forms the medial part of the orbit

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Forms the medial part of the orbit

Lacrimal bones

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Nasal bones

Forms the bridge of the nose

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Forms the bridge of the nose

Nasal bones

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Vomer bones

Forms the base of the nasal septum

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Forms the base of the nasal septum

Vomer bones

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Nasal septum

The cartilaginous structure that divides the two nasal cavities

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The cartilaginous structure that divides the two nasal cavities

Nasal septum

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Hyoid bones

Bone suspended between the mandible and laryngopharynx

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Bone suspended between the mandible and laryngopharynx

Hyoid bone

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Vertebral column

Spinal Column or backbone, supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord. Consists of individual bones called vertebra.

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supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord

Vertebral column. Spinal column or backbone

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Vertebral body

The solid portion of the vertebra ventral to the spinal cord

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The solid portion of the vertebra ventral to the spinal cord

Vertebral body

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Vertebral arch

The dorsal part of the vertebra that surrounds there spinal cord

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The dorsal part of the vertebra that surrounds there spinal cord

Vertebral arch

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Lamina (vertebra)

The left or right dorsal half of the arch

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The left or right dorsal half of the arch

Lamina

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Spinous process

A single process (projection) from the dorsal part of the vertebral arch

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A single process (projection) from the dorsal part of the vertebral arch

Spinous process

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Transverse process

Project laterally from the right and left sides of the vertebral arch

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Project laterally from the right and left sides of the vertebral arch

Transverse process

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Articular processes

Paired cranial and caudal projections located on the dorsum of the vertebral arch

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Paired cranial and caudal projections located on the dorsum of the vertebral arch

Articular processes

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Vertebral foramen

The opening in the middle of the vertebra through which the spinal cord passes

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The opening in the middle of the vertebra through which the spinal cord passes

Vertebral Foramen

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Intervertebral discs

Cartilage discs that separate and cushion the vertebra from each other

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Cartilage discs that separate and cushion the vertebra from each other

Intervertebral discs

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Atlas

C1, cervical vertebra one

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C1, cervical vertebra one

Atlas

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Axis

C2, cervical vertebra two

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C2, cervical vertebra two

Axis

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Cervical vertebrae

Neck area C vertebrae

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Neck area, C vertebrae

Cervical vertebrae

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Thoracic vertebrae

Chest area, T vertebrae

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Chest area, T vertebrae

Thoracic vertebrae

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Lumbar vertebrae

Loin area, L vertebrae

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Loin area, L vertebrae

Lumbar vertebrae

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Sacral vertebrae

Sacrum area, S vertebrae

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Sacrum area, S vertebrae

Sacral vertebrae

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Coccygeal vertebrae

Tail area, Cy or Cd vertebrae. Also called caudal.

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Tail area, Cy or Cd vertebrae.

Coccygeal or caudal vertebrae

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Ribs

Paired bones that attach to thoracic vertebrae. Also called costals

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Paired bones that attach to thoracic vertebrae

Ribs or costals

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Sternum

Breastbone. Forms the midline ventral portion of the rib cage, divided into three parts.

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Forms the midline ventral portion of the rib cage, divided into three parts.

Sternum, breastbone

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Manubrium

The cranial portion of the sternum

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The cranial portion of the sternum

Manubrium

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The body

The middle portion of the sternum

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The middle portion of the sternum

Body

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Xiphoid process

The caudal portion of the sternum

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The caudal portion of the sternum

Xiphoid process

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Thoracic cavity

Rib cage. Protects the heart and lungs. Boundaries are the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae

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Protects the heart and lungs. Boundaries are the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae. Rib cage.

Thoracic cavity or rib cage

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The bones of the front limb (8 names)

Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpals, phalanges

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Scapula

Shoulder blade. A large triangular bone on the side of the thorax

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A large triangular bone on the side of the thorax

Scapula. Shoulder blade.

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Clavicle

Collar bone. Slender bone that connects the sternum to the scapula

Swine, ruminants, and equine do not have clavicles

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Slender bone that connects the sternum to the scapula

Clavicle. Collar bone.

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Humerus

The long bone of the proximal front limb. Sometimes called the brachium.

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The long bone of the proximal front limb. Sometimes called the brachium.

Humerus

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Radius

Cranial bone of the front limb in the antebrachium.

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Cranial bone of the front limb in the antebrachium.

Radius

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Ulna

Caudal bone of the front limb in the antebrachium.

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Caudal bone of the front limb in the antebrachium.

Ulna

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Olecranon

A proximal projection on the ulna that forms the elbow point

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A proximal projection on the ulna that forms the elbow point

Olecranon