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Flashcards in Anesthetics Deck (10):

Rate of neurotransmission depends on...

Thickness of axon and presence of myelin


Saltatory conduction

Nerve impulses skip from one Node of Ranvier to the next
Done by allowing influx of Na+ ions into the node


More myelin results in...

Less ions required to regenerate the resting potential


Physiology of neurotransmission

K+ ions diffuse out of the cell, giving it a negative potential
Once the initial signal reaches the firing potential, all ion channels open and Na+ flows in, allowing the signal to be transmitted to the next node


Stages of general anesthetics

Stage 1: analgesia (loss of consciousness)
Stage 2: excitement (agitation and delirium)
Stage 3: surgical anesthesia (painful stimuli don't elicit a somatic reflex or deleterious autonomic response)
Stage 4: impending death (onset of apnea to failure of circulation and respiration)


Ideal anesthetic combination in terms of general anesthetic stages

Allows patient to proceed quickly from stage 1 to stage 3 while avoiding stage 4


Inhaled general anesthetic mechanism

Theory most likely to be correct: interaction with various ion channels used to influence the electrical activity of cells and their physiological response


Inhaled general anesthetics SAR

Based off of diethyl ether
Alkane/cycloalkane: potency increases with increase in carbon atoms
Adding -OH increases potency
Halogenation decreases flammability and increases stability and potency
Addition of double or triple bonds to 6 carbon atoms or less increases potency


Local anesthetics SAR

Aromatic ring: adds lipophilicity to penetrate biological membranes
Linker: normally ester or amide group plus a hydrophobic chain
Tertiary nitrogen


Mechanism of local anesthetics

Block Na+ channels