Anesthetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anesthetics Deck (10):
1

Rate of neurotransmission depends on...

Thickness of axon and presence of myelin

2

Saltatory conduction

Nerve impulses skip from one Node of Ranvier to the next
Done by allowing influx of Na+ ions into the node

3

More myelin results in...

Less ions required to regenerate the resting potential

4

Physiology of neurotransmission

K+ ions diffuse out of the cell, giving it a negative potential
Once the initial signal reaches the firing potential, all ion channels open and Na+ flows in, allowing the signal to be transmitted to the next node

5

Stages of general anesthetics

Stage 1: analgesia (loss of consciousness)
Stage 2: excitement (agitation and delirium)
Stage 3: surgical anesthesia (painful stimuli don't elicit a somatic reflex or deleterious autonomic response)
Stage 4: impending death (onset of apnea to failure of circulation and respiration)

6

Ideal anesthetic combination in terms of general anesthetic stages

Allows patient to proceed quickly from stage 1 to stage 3 while avoiding stage 4

7

Inhaled general anesthetic mechanism

Theory most likely to be correct: interaction with various ion channels used to influence the electrical activity of cells and their physiological response

8

Inhaled general anesthetics SAR

Based off of diethyl ether
Alkane/cycloalkane: potency increases with increase in carbon atoms
Adding -OH increases potency
Halogenation decreases flammability and increases stability and potency
Addition of double or triple bonds to 6 carbon atoms or less increases potency

9

Local anesthetics SAR

Aromatic ring: adds lipophilicity to penetrate biological membranes
Linker: normally ester or amide group plus a hydrophobic chain
Tertiary nitrogen

10

Mechanism of local anesthetics

Block Na+ channels