Gluconeogenesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gluconeogenesis Deck (9):
1

Macromolecules that can be synthesized into glucose

Amino acids (especially alanine)
Lactate
Pyruvate
Glycerol

2

Net reaction of gluconeogenesis

2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 GTP + 2 NADH + 2H+ + 6H2O -> glucose + 4 ADP + 2GDP + 2NAD+ + 6 phosphate
6 nucleotides: more energy is needed to make glucose than is generated from its consumption

3

3 steps that are different from glycolysis

Pyruvate -> phosphoenolpyruvate
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -> fructose-6 phosphate
Glucose 6-phosphate -> glucose

4

Pyruvate -> phosphoenolpyruvate

Pyruvate -> oxaloacetate (enzyme: pyruvate carboxylase; 2 ATP used)
Oxaloacetate -> phosphoenolpyruvate (enzyme: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; 2 GTP used)

5

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -> fructose 6-phosphate

Enzyme used is fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (rather than phosphofructokinase-1)

6

Glucose 6-phosphate -> glucose

Enzyme used is glucose 6-phosphatase (rather than hexokinase)

7

Cori cycle

Muscles generate lactic acid through anaerobic glycolysis that is recycled back to glucose in the liver

8

Glycerol metabolism to glucose

2 steps:
Glycerol -> glycerol 3-phosphate (glycerol kinase)
Glycerol 3-phosphate -> dihydroxyacetone phosphate

9

Difference in products in glycerol 3-phosphate -> dihydroxyacetone phosphate based on where reaction takes place

Cytosol: NADH is a product
Mitochondrial membrane: QH is a product