Analgesics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Analgesics Deck (9):
1

3 main opioid receptors

Mu
Delta
Kappa

2

Opioids examples

Morphine (mu receptor agonist)
Codeine (less potent than morphine)
Heroin (more potent than morphine, especially in addictive properties)
Hydromorphone (5x as potent as morphine)
Hydrocodone (equivalent potency to morphine)
Oxymorphone and oxycodone (low oral potency, but similar to hydromorphone when injected)

3

Phenyl and anilidopiperidines

Removal of B ring: increased flexibility
Examples: fentanyl, diphenoxylate, meperidine, etc.

4

Methadone

Only agent available for opioid addiction
Diphenylheptane

5

Opioid antagonists

Reverse effects of opioids (compete for receptors)
Recovering from anesthesia, treating overdose, relieving constipation
Naltrexone, etc.

6

NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

Relieve mild to moderate pain
Side effects: GI irritation and bleeding, kidney damage

7

How NSAIDs work

Inhibit cyclooxygenase (father of prostaglandins- produce pain and excrete gastric juices)

8

NSAIDs examples

Aspirin
Conventional non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors (ibuprofen, etc.)
Selective COX-2 inhibitors (Celebrex, etc.; attempt to avoid side effects of NSAIDs)
Antipyretics (acetaminophen, etc.)
Antirheumatic drugs
Treatments for gout and hyperuricemia

9

Triptans

Used to treat moderate to severe migraines and headaches
Reduce inflammation through constriction of cranial vessels
by stimulating 5-HT receptors 1B and 1D
Decrease firing of neurons that release peptides that cause inflammation