Flashcards in Animal Body Plans, Taxonomy and Phylogeny Deck (24)
What did early zoologists use to describe relationships between animals?
-size and shape
Are body plans useful for understanding relationships between animals?
No. It's useful for for describing differences but not for understanding relationships because of convergent evolution.
What are the types of symmetry?
-Symmetry around a central point
-Symmetry accross the sagittal plane
-No planes of symmetry
What characteristics are associated with bilateral symmetry?
-sense organs and mouth usually at head
What is segmentation?
repetition of structures along the longitudinal axis of body
-result from linear series of mesodermic somites
What is the purpose of body cavities?
-greater separation of function
-localization of internal organs
-hydrostatic skeleton in place of endo/exo
What is modularity?
Increasing body size by adding new units
-adding modules that are genetically identical but not morphologically identical
What is coloniality?
Increasing body size by adding ramets
-adding modules that are genetically identical and morphologically identical
What are different constraints of body plans?
Hydrostatic skeletons and Exoskeletons cause all animals with that feature to look alike
Give examples of constrained body plans.
-Annelida - Hydrostatic skeleton under pressure
-Arthropoda - exoskeleton limits size
-Mollusca, Chordates - grow large
How do surface area/volume ratio interact?
-Large animals have less surface area relative to their volume than smaller animals of same shape
-Two organisms with the same volumes can have different ratios depending on shape
How do size and shape influence endotherms?
Endotherms (Produce heat internally)
-Volume: heat generating
-Surface area: heat losing
-Result: minimize surface area/volume ratio w/ large size
How do size and shape influence ectotherms?
Ectotherms (Capture heat)
-Volume: heat usage
-Surface area: heat capturing
-Result: maximize surface area/volume ratio w/ small size and snake like shapes
What are the pros and cons of having a large size body plan?
-buffer against small environmental fluctuations
-provide greater protection against predation
-enhance offensive tactics
-sudden large environmental changes will kill off the large animals first (require large amounts of energy)
What is taxonomy?
systematic ordering and naming of organisms
Aristotle used to order animals according o morphological similarities. What is the downside of this method? Who came up with a new method? What was it?
Downside was convergent evolution produced similarities
Ernst Haeckel decided to order animals according to common ancestry
How do you write a species name?
genus + species IN ITALICS
-genus name is capitalized
-species name is not
What is the binomial and taxonomic authority?
The person who describes the new species (the authority) and date of publication forllow the binomial name
-when/if it is revised the authority name and publication date are presented in parentheses
What is the biological species concept?
A group of interbreeding individuals of common ancestry that are reproductively isolated from all other groups
What are the mechanisms of reproductive isolation?
-attraction of different features
What is phylogeny?
Similar morphological and molecular features among organisms that are inherited from a common ancestor
What is homology?
character similiarity that results from common ancestry
-ie. homologous structures like human arm and mouse forelimb
an analogous structure is one that is used for the same purpose but didn't come from same ancestor
-ie. butterflywing and bird wing
What is synapomorphy? What is it used for?
Synapomorphy = shared, derived character
Species that share a derived character are group together into clades
-clades are used to build cladograms