Animal Body Plans, Taxonomy and Phylogeny Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Animal Body Plans, Taxonomy and Phylogeny Deck (24)
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1

What did early zoologists use to describe relationships between animals?

Body Plans
-symmetry
-segmentation
-size and shape

2

Are body plans useful for understanding relationships between animals?

No. It's useful for for describing differences but not for understanding relationships because of convergent evolution.

3

What are the types of symmetry?

Radial Symmetry
-Symmetry around a central point

Bilateral Symmetry
-Symmetry accross the sagittal plane

Asymmetry
-No planes of symmetry

4

What characteristics are associated with bilateral symmetry?

Directional movement

Cephalization
-sense organs and mouth usually at head

5

What is segmentation?

repetition of structures along the longitudinal axis of body
-result from linear series of mesodermic somites

6

What is the purpose of body cavities?

allow for
-greater separation of function
-localization of internal organs
-hydrostatic skeleton in place of endo/exo

7

What is modularity?

Increasing body size by adding new units
-adding modules that are genetically identical but not morphologically identical

8

What is coloniality?

Increasing body size by adding ramets
-adding modules that are genetically identical and morphologically identical

9

What are different constraints of body plans?

Hydrostatic skeletons and Exoskeletons cause all animals with that feature to look alike

10

Give examples of constrained body plans.

Highly Constrained
-Annelida - Hydrostatic skeleton under pressure

Moderately Constrained
-Arthropoda - exoskeleton limits size

Unconstrained
-Mollusca, Chordates - grow large

11

How do surface area/volume ratio interact?

Size
-Large animals have less surface area relative to their volume than smaller animals of same shape

Shape
-Two organisms with the same volumes can have different ratios depending on shape

12

How do size and shape influence endotherms?

Endotherms (Produce heat internally)
-Volume: heat generating
-Surface area: heat losing
-Result: minimize surface area/volume ratio w/ large size

13

How do size and shape influence ectotherms?

Ectotherms (Capture heat)
-Volume: heat usage
-Surface area: heat capturing
-Result: maximize surface area/volume ratio w/ small size and snake like shapes

14

What are the pros and cons of having a large size body plan?

PROS
-buffer against small environmental fluctuations
-provide greater protection against predation
-enhance offensive tactics

CONS
-sudden large environmental changes will kill off the large animals first (require large amounts of energy)

15

What is taxonomy?

systematic ordering and naming of organisms

16

Aristotle used to order animals according o morphological similarities. What is the downside of this method? Who came up with a new method? What was it?

Downside was convergent evolution produced similarities

Ernst Haeckel decided to order animals according to common ancestry

17

How do you write a species name?

genus + species IN ITALICS
-genus name is capitalized
-species name is not

18

What is the binomial and taxonomic authority?

The person who describes the new species (the authority) and date of publication forllow the binomial name
-when/if it is revised the authority name and publication date are presented in parentheses

19

What is the biological species concept?

A group of interbreeding individuals of common ancestry that are reproductively isolated from all other groups

20

What are the mechanisms of reproductive isolation?

-temporal
-geographical
-attraction of different features
-reproductive inviability

21

What is phylogeny?

Similar morphological and molecular features among organisms that are inherited from a common ancestor

22

What is homology?

character similiarity that results from common ancestry
-ie. homologous structures like human arm and mouse forelimb

an analogous structure is one that is used for the same purpose but didn't come from same ancestor
-ie. butterflywing and bird wing

23

What is synapomorphy? What is it used for?

Synapomorphy = shared, derived character

Species that share a derived character are group together into clades
-clades are used to build cladograms

24

What is a phylogenetic tree?

Diagram whose branches represent current or past evolutionary lineages