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Flashcards in CH 31: Fungi Deck (24)
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1

What are the evolution and distinctive features of fungi?

Part of Eukaryote supergroup Opisthokonta

More closely related to animals than plants
-Heterotrophic
-Absorptive nutrition
-Store surplus food as glycogen

2

What is the only fungi without chitin cell wall?

Cryptomycota

3

What is the cell wall chemistry of fungi?

Fungal cells enclosed by tough cell walls composed of chitin
-Different than animals

Cannot engulf food due to chitin

Also restricts mobility

4

What is Hyphae?

Colorless threads that branch to make up main body of most fungi

5

What is mycelium?

Vast number of hyphae that grow together to make up a tangled web (this is the main body)

6

What are the different body forms of fungi?

Hyphae Aseptate (early diverging fungi)
-"no septa", no division between nuclei in hyphae

Hyphae Septate (later diverging fungi)
-septa divides hyphae into sections with one nucleus

Fruiting bodies
-reproductive structures that produce spores

7

How does fungi grow?

-Grows quick when food plentiful
-Grows at edges
-Narrow branches provide high surface area for absorption
-Osmosis causes hyphae to grow outwards

8

How do fungi reproduce asexually?

Produce asexual clone spores

Ideal for rapid spread
-don't need to find a mate
-no fruiting body
-no meiosis

9

How do fungi reproduce sexually?

Gametes fuse, form zygote, meiosis

Gametes are cells from hyphal branches
-hyphal branches fuse

Plasmogamy (gamete cytoplasm fuse) followed by karyogamy (gamete nuclei fuse)

Nuclei remain separate for long time after plasmogamy as dikaryons (two nuclei)

10

What are the fruiting bodies of fungi?

Contains dikaryotic cells that fuse when mature

Produce zygotes and undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores

11

How do fruiting bodies deter consumption?

Toxins and hallucinogens

12

What are the features of Cryptomycota?

-Lack Chitin
-Found in water/soil

13

What are the features of Chytridiomycota?

-Water/soil
-decomposers/pathogens

14

What are the features of Microsporidia?

-Small size
-Pathogens that need animal host to reproduce

15

What are the features of Zygomycetes?

-Decomposers
-Bread mold

16

What are the features of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

-Live with plant partners
-Aseptate hyphae
-Asexual reproduction
-Helped early plants live on land

17

What are the features of Ascomycetes?

Sac-fungi
-Septate hyphae
-Sporangia called asci
-Decomposers/plant pathogens

18

What are the features of Basidiomycetes?

Club fungi
-Septate hyphae
-most recently diverged froup
-mycorrhizal partners
-sexual spores called basidiospores

19

What is the ecology of fungi?

Decomposers
-can break down cellulose and lignin
-release minerals to soil and water

Some are:
-predators: lasso fungi
-parasites: cordyceps
-pathogens: athletes foot or crop rust

20

What is fungal association, Mycorrhizae?

Association between hyphae of certain fungi and roots of most seed plants
-plants receive more water/minerals
-fungi receive organic food molecules

Types are endomycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae

21

What is fungal association, endomycorrhizae?

Grow inside root cells to get nutrients
-don't grow too deep into plant or else it will be killed

22

What is fungal association, ectomycorrhizae?

Coat root surface and grows between root cells

23

What is the fungal association, fungal endophytes?

Live within leaf and stem tissues of plant
-Fungal endophytes get organic molecules from plant
-Plant gets toxins/antibiotics for defense against herbivory/pathogens

24

What is the fungal association, lichens?

partnership of certain fungi and photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria
-partner gets CO2, water, minerals
-fungi gets organic food molecules and oxygen