CH 23 & 25: Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 23 & 25: Evolution Deck (44)
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1

What is evolution?

Heritable change in one or more characteristics from one generation to the next

2

What is microevolution?

changes in a single gene in a population over time

3

What is macroevolution?

formation of new species or groups of species

4

What influence did the Uniformitarianism hypothesis from geology have on Darwin's theory of evolution?

-Slow geological processes lead to substantial change
-Earth was much older than 6,000 years

5

What did Darwin call his theory of evolution?

Descent with modification

6

What influence did Thomas Malthus, an economist, have on Darwin's theory of evolution?

Only a fraction of any population will survive and reproduce

Population growth limited by:
•Famine
•War
•Disease

Survival & reproduction are key components of natural selection

7

What is descent with modification, evolution, based on?

Variation within a given species
•Traits heritable –passed from parent to offspring
•Genetic basis was not yet known

Natural selection
•More offspring produced than can survive
•Competition for limited resources
•Individual with better traits flourish and reproduce

8

What animal did Darwin study on the galapagos that influenced his theory of evolution?

Finches and their beak size
-finches from south american mainland flew to galapagos with variety of beak sizes (ie. variation)
-natural selection weeded out beak sizes that weren't conducive to eating galapagos seed and nuts

9

What evidence is there for the theory of evolution?

-Fossil record
-Biogeography
-Convergent evolution
-Selective breeding
-Homologies (morphology/DNA)
•Anatomical
•Developmental
•Molecular

10

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in the fossil record?

•Evolution of the horse ~ ex of how evolution involves adaptation to changing environments
•changes in size, foot anatomy, and tooth morphology
•Changes because natural selection producing adaptations to changing global climates
•Large dense forests replaced with grassland
•Run faster, eat tougher food

11

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in biogeography?

Study of the geographical distribution of extinct and modern species
•Isolated continents and islands evolve their own distinct plant and animal communities
•Closely related species living in isolation become divergent
•Endemic–naturally found only in a particular location

12

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in convergent evolution?

Two different species, without common ancestor, show similar characteristics because they occupy similar environments
•Suggests adaptation to the environment

Examples:
•Antifreeze proteins in different, very cold water fish

13

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in Selective breeding?

Programs and procedures designed to modify traits in domesticated species
•Also called artificial selection
•Nature chooses parents in natural selection while breeders choose in artificial selection
•Made possible by genetic variation

14

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in homology?

Fundamental similarity due to descent from a common ancestor

Homology may be any inherited type of character
•Anatomical
•Developmental
•Molecular

15

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in anatomical homology?

Same set of bones in the limbs of modern vertebrates has undergone evolutionary change for many different purposes
•Homologous structures are derived from a common ancestor
•Vestigial structures are anatomical structures that have no function but resemble structures of ancestors

16

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in developmental homology?

Species that differ as adults have similarities during embryonic stages
•Presence of gill ridges in human embryos indicates humans evolved from an aquatic animal with gill slits
•Human embryos have long bony tails

17

What is the evidence of evolutionary change in molecular homology?

Similarities in cells at the molecular level show that living species evolved from a common ancestor
•same type of gene is often found in DNA of diverse organisms
•Sequences of closely related species tend to be more similar to each other than to distantly related species

18

What are Homologous Genes?

Two genes derived from the same ancestral gene

19

What are Orthologs?

Genes in different species that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation
-The genes have similar functions

20

What is a Gene Family?

A set of Several similar genes formed by duplication of a single original gene

21

What is a Paralog?

two or more homologous genes derived from the same ancestral gene at different locations
-The genes do different functions

22

When does a homologous gene become an ortholog?

When mutations accumulate enough so the two genes are not identical anymore

23

What is Macroevolution?

evolutionary changes that create new species and groups of species

24

What is a species?

Group of organisms that maintains a distinctive set of attributes in nature

25

What characteristics are commonly used to identify a species?

1) Morphological Traits
2) Ability to Interbreed (reproductive isolation)
3) Molecular Features
4) Ecological Factors
5) Evolutionary Relationships

26

What are Morphological Characteristics? What are the drawbacks to using it to identify a species?

-Physical Characteristics of organism
-How many traits to consider? Same species can look different. Different species can look similar.

27

What is the ability to interbreed? What are the drawbacks to using it to identify a species?

-Reproductive isolation prevents one species from successfully interbreeding with another species

-Difficult to determine in nature, some species' can interbreed but don't, Doesn't apply to asexual species, can't be applies to extinct species

28

What are Molecular Features? What are the drawbacks to using it to identify a species?

Compare features to identify similarities/differences among different populations
-DNA sequences within genes
-Gene Order along chromosomes
-Chromosome structure
-Chromosome Number

Difficult to draw the line when separating groups

29

What are Ecological Factors? What are the drawbacks to using it to identify a species?

Factors related to organism's habitat

-Different species display similarities in habitat
-Same species display differences in habitat

30

What are the different species concepts?

Biological Species Concept: species can interbreed

Ecological Species Concept: Each species occupies ecological niche

Evolutionary Lineage Concept: Species based on separate evolution of lineages