Anti-Virals & Antibiotics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anti-Virals & Antibiotics Deck (44)
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1

Acyclovir MOA

Competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase; competes w/ deoxyguanosine triphosphate for incorporation into viral DNA

2

Acyclovir Tox

Neurotoxicity including seizures; Hydrate pt well to avoid crystalline nephropathy or neurotox

3

Acyclovir PK

Little metabolism; renal elim; dose adj in renal dysfxn or failure may occur

4

Interesting fact about acyclovir and oral dose levels

*Oral bioavailability DECREASES with INCREASING dose; Req TK activity

5

Famciclovir MOA

Competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase; competes w/ deoxyguanosine triphosphate for incorporation into viral DNA

6

Famciclovir Tox

No significant issues; Hydrate pt

7

Famciclovir PK

Little metabolism; renal elim; dose adj in renal dysfxn or failure may occur

8

Benzathine Pen G MOA

Bactericidal Beta-Lactam: binds PBPs causing cell lysis

9

Benzathine Pen G Tox

Poor penetration of CSF (not good tx for neurosyphilis); HSR or skin rxns may be problematic; Jarisch-Herxheimer Rxn (do NOT D/C penicillin)

10

Benzathine Pen G PK

Rapidly eliminated via renal tubular excretion (delayed in renal dysfxn)

11

Benzathine Pen G Admin

IM admin produces a drug depot that liberates drug over 2 week period

12

Use of procaine Pen G

Congenital Syphilis

13

Azithromycin MOA

Binds 50S ribosomal subunit; Bacteriostatic

14

Azithromycin Tox

GI upset, vaginitis

15

Azithromycin PK

Little metabolism; most elim in stool; long half-life; extensive tissue uptake & slow release

16

Doxycycline MOA

Binds 30S ribosomal subunit; Bacteriostatic

17

Doxycycline Tox

GI upset; hepatic damage in high dose esp in pregnancy; photosensitivity w/ sunlight or tanning bed

18

Doxycycline PK

Little metabolism; most elim in stool; long half-life; extensive tissue uptake & slow release

19

Doxycycline Pregnancy Cat

D

20

Levofloxacin/Ofloxacin MOA

Inhibits DNA gyrase (topo II) in Gram-negative; Inhibits topo IV in Gram-positive; Bactericidal (both)

21

Levofloxacin/Ofloxacin Tox

Taste disturbance; GI upset; 2 BBW

22

Levofloxacin/Ofloxacin BBW

BBW=increased risk of tendonitis & rupture; BBW=exacerbation of muscle weakness-avoid in Myasthenia Gravis

23

Levofloxacin/Ofloxacin PK

Little metabolism; most elim in urine; medium half-life (prolonged in renal dysfxn)

24

Fluoroquinolones pregnancy cat

Cat C

25

Ceftriaxone MOA

Bactericidal Beta-Lactam: binds PBPs causing cell lysis

26

Ceftriaxone PK

Medium half-life; widely distributed; elim in urine primarily via GF

27

Metronidazole MOA

Unionized drug taken up by anaerobic organisms & cells where it is reduced to its active form which disrupts DNA's helical structure; Amebecidal, bactericidal, & trichomonacidal

28

Metronidazole Tox

GI upset; candidiasis; disulfram-like effect (avoid alcohol for 24 hours after completing therapy); secondary malignancies maybe

29

Metronidazole PK

Medium half-life; widely distributed; extensive hepatic metabolism w/ elim primarily in urine & stool; Inhibits CYP2C9

30

Metronidazole in pregnancy

Avoid in pregnancy & breastfeeding