Flashcards in Antifungals Deck (38):
Histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, coccidiomysosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcosis, and sporotrichosis
Topical antifungals include:
Local antifungals EXCEPT griseofulvin
Systemic antifungals include:
Systemic antifungals PLUS Griseofulvin
List the Broad-Spectrum topical antifungals:
List the Narrow spectrum topical antifungals:
Other topical antifungals that do not fall under a 'spectrum;
Iodides (tissue damage at high conc)
Hexachlorphene (stains skin)
Which 'azole' was originally an antihelmenthic?
Which 'azole' is often made into an antifungal medicated shampoo?
List the systemically administered antifungal drugs.
Fungi cell membrane is made out of what
What is the synthesis pathway of ergosterol?
Squalene (+Squalene epoxidase)
--> Squalene epoxide
--> Lanosterol (+14alphaDimethylase)
What drug blocks Squalene epoxidase?
What drug blocks 14 alpha dimethylase?
What is the mechanism of action for Amphotericin B/Polyenes?
binding irreversibly to ergosterol
What is flucytosine mechanism of action?
inhibiting thymidylate synthase (like anticancer?)
What is the mechanism of action of Griseofulvin?
What is the mechanism of action of Lufenuron?
What is Griseofulvin used for?
Oral treatment of dermatophytes (deposits in keratin)
Contraindications/Adverse effect of Griseofulvin?
Enzyme inducer (drug-drug), GI irritation, idisyncratic liver dysfunction AND bone marrow suppresion in cats
What is the most dangerous side effect of Amphotericin B?
What is Amphotericin used for?
Most effective drug for systemic mycosis in immuno-compromised animals (combined with azoles)
*Also can be used topically for candida
How can you make Amphotericin B less nephrotoxic
use the liposomal encapsulate preparation as it is less toxic
What is flucytosine used for?
Used to be used for cryptococcal meningitis with Amphotericin B (penetrates CNS while AmpB doesnt)
Why do you need to give food before administering ketoconazole?
requires an acidic pH
Contraindications effects of ketoconazole?
- Inhibits 14 alpha Dimethylase in the fungi as well as the liver and adrenal cortex (not good)
What does ketoconazole work on?
Local: dermatophytes, candida, and malassezia
Systemic: Blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis (in immunocompetant)
Adverse effects of ketoconazole?
inappetance, pruritis/alopecia, inhibited cortisol and testosterone synthesis, and teratogenic (DONT GIVE TO PREGNANT ANIMALS)
*cats are more sensitive
What is Itraconazole the dug of choice for? (three things)
Systemic mycoses (Blastomycosis/Histoplasmosis), ASPERGILLOSIS, and SPOROTRICHOSIS
Why is itraconazole better than ketoconazole?
Does not inhibit cortisol or testosterone synthesis at therapeutic doses
Can you give ketoconazole or itraconazole to pregnant animals?
What is the drug of choice for treating cryptococcal meningitis?
What is Terbinafine used for?
topical against dermatophytosis
What enzyme can Terbinafine elevate in cats?
What is Lufenuron used for?
Oral tx of dermatophytosis
*can also treat ectoparasites as they also have chitin
Drug of choice for Aspergillus Keratitis in a horse?
Drug of choice for Canine nasal aspergillosis?
Clotrimazole or Enilconazole
Drug of choice for systemic aspergillosis?