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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (57):
1

List the three nonselective beta agonists.

Epinephrine
Isoproterenol
Ephedrine

2

What is epinephrine used for (as a respiratory drug)?

Drug of choice for emergency life threatening bronchoconstriction and acute anaphylaxis response

*No long term use

3

What are the Beta-2 agonists?

Salmeterol (Human - long acting)
Albuterol
Terbutaline
Metaproterenol
Clenbuterol

4

How do you administer Terbutaline?

Oral or Inj. ONLY injection in horses bc of poor oral absorption
(lasts 6-8hr)

5

What species is albuterol used in?

Oral/Inhalent in cats and horses

6

How is Metaproteranol given?

Only oral, 4hr duration

7

What species is clenbuterol used for?

Horses.
Illegal in food animals.

8

How do the Beta-2 Agonists work?

Selective for Beta 2. Bronchodilation, stabilization of mast cells, and increased mucociliary clearance.

9

Adverse effects of Beta 2 agonists?

(Any beta 1 effect) Cardiac stimulation, vasodilation, and uterine relax

**Can be poison from causing hyperglycemia and hypokalemia

10

T/F Beta 2 agonists are often used to treat RAO?

True.

11

What are the anticholenergics that work on the respiratory system?

Ipratropium
Atropine
Glycopyrrolate

12

List the Methylxanthine derivative drugs.

Caffiene ** coffee, tea, chocolate
Theophylline
Aminophylline (soluble salt of theophylline)

13

MOA of Methylxanthine derivatives (Know this)

1. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase
2. Antagonism of adenosine receptors

14

Effects of Methylxanthine derivatives on the CNS

Stimulation of sensory and motor areas (like when you drink too much coffee)

15

Effects of Methylxanthine derivatives on the Respiratory system

Bronchodilation, Antiinflammatory, prevention of microvascular leakage (treat pulmonary hypertension), mucociliary clearance, improve breathing.

16

Effects of methylxanthine derivatives on the Cardiovascular system

stimulation of cardiac contractility, increasing heart rate, systolic pressure, and vasodilation (can be adverse effect-tachyarrythmia)

17

Effects of Methylxanthine derivatives on the Kidney?

Diuresis secondary to increased cardiac output and glomerular filtration

18

How are methyxanthine derivatives given?

Oral or parenteral.
*Volume of distribution is lower in cats than other species

oh p.s its metabolized by the liver, didnt feel like making another card

19

What are the therapeutic uses of Methylxanthine derivatives?

Brinchoconstriction, bronchial asthma (resp dx), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RAO)

*Aminophylline is also used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and anaphyllaxis

20

Contraindications of Methylxanthine derivatives?

Cardiac disease, Peptic ulcer disease (increases aciditiy), and seizure disorders (CNS stimulation)

21

T/F You need to be careful when using inhalation anesthetics and methylxanthine derivatives

True.

The cardiac depression from the anesthetics plus the stimulation from the MD could lead to tachycardia/arrhythmia

22

What are the 6 groups of Antiinflammatory drugs (in reference to respiratory)?

Cromolyn sodium
Leukotriene inhibitors
Glucocorticoids
NSAIDS
Beta adrenergic agonists
Methylxanthines

23

What is Cromolyn sodium used for?

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-bronchoconstrictor (Not a bronchdilator though)
*Treats RAO

24

What glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of respiratory disease?

Dexamethasone injection sometimes (Anti-bronchoconstriction)
Fluticasone inhaler --> SA
Beclomethasone inhaler --> LA

25

What is Flunixin used for in respiratory disease?

NSAID tx:
- endotoxin release
- colic antispasmotic in horses
- bovine respiratory disease (BRD)

26

What is aspirin used for in respiratory disease?

Pulmonary embolism

27

What are the two leukotriene inhibitors that we know?

Zafirlukast and Zileuton

28

How does Zafirlukast work?

Leukotriene receptor agonist (selective competitive agonist)

29

How does Zileutron work?

5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor (inhibits formation of leukotriene)

30

What are the clinical uses of leukotriene inhibitors?

Given orally to PREVENT chronic bronchial asthma..... in humans....

31

How do antihistamines help in regards to respiratory?

(competitive agonists of H1 receptors)
tx of chronic respiratory disease bc of their effect on bronchial secretions

32

What are antitussives?

Drugs which decrease the frequency and severity of nonproductive cough without impairing mucociliary defenses

33

What are the 3 centrally-acting, narcotic, antitussives?

Codeine, Hydrocodone, Morphine

34

What are the three centrally-acting, nonnarcotic, antitussives?

Butorphenol, Dextromethophan, Noscapine

35

What are the two peripherally-acting antitussives?

Bronchodilators, Mucokinetics

36

What is codeine used for?

Antitussive.
Controlled drug with sedation and constipation as side effects

37

What is Hydrocodone used for?

Drug of choice for cough in dogs!!
More potent than codeine

38

What is tramadol used for?

Antitussive.
inexpensive, oral, and has opoid/seratonin/alpha2 activity

39

What is Butorphenol used for?

Nonnarcotic antitussive.
Agonist/antagonist with a long duration of action

40

What is Dextromethorphan used for?

Nonnarcotic antittussive.
NMDA antagonist with V/CNS side effects

41

What is the difference between mucokinetic drugs and expectorants?

Mucokinetic drugs facilitate removal of secretions
Exoectorants increase volume/fluidity of secretions

42

What is the mechanism of action for mucokinetic drugs?

Stimulating ciliary activity (Beta agonist/methylxanthines) and decreasing viscosity of bronchial secretions (saline/NaBicarb)

43

What is the mechanism of action for expectorants?

Act reflexly by irritation of gastric mucosa (K+Iodide/NH4+salts)
OR
direct stimulation (Guaifenesin/Volatile oils)

44

What is Guaifenesin used for?

works on glands of the respiratory system as an expectorant as well as a muscle relaxant when combined with ketamine in horses.

45

What are the direct decongestants?

Direct Alpha Agonists - vasoconstrictors
- Phyenylephrine
- Ephedrine
- Pseudoephedrine
- phenylpropanolamine

46

What are your indirect decongestants?

- H1-antagonists (diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine)
- Cromolyn sodium
- GLucocorticoids

47

What is the drug of choice to tx pulmonary edema?

Furosemide (diuretic)

*also could use digoxin/phophodiesterase inhibitors but more heart risk

48

What are the two antifoaming agent?

- Nebulization of ethyl alcohol
- Silicone Spray

49

What are the three main categories of bronchodilator drugs?

1. Beta adrenergic agonists
2. Methylxanthine derivatives
3. Anticholenergics - derivatives of atropine

50

What can oxygen be used for?

Hypoxemia and respiratory acidosis

51

When is oxygen contraindicated?

Paraquat toxicosis

52

What is Doxapram used for?

Respiratory analeptic (stimulant)
Reverses respiratory depression due to inhalation/barbituate anesthesia or neonatal depression

53

What is the M.O.A. for doxapram?

Stimulating the chemoreceptors (main mechanism) and directly acting on the respiratory center

54

Adverse effects of Doxapram?

Pressor effect and seizures with large doses

55

What can doxapram reverse in dogs?

Actions of acepromazine, xylazone, or droperidol-fentanyl

56

What can doxapram reverse in cats?

Thiopental-acepromazine

57

What can doxapram treat in foals?

Hypercapnia associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy