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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (43):
1

Drug of choice for complete AV block

Epinephrine

2

What are your cardiac stimulants?

B-1 agonists, Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, Glucagon, and Calcium salts

3

What doe Isoproteranol do?

Works on B1 and B2 receptors.
Most potent cardiac stimulant

4

What does Epinephrine do?

B1 at low dose, A1 at high dose.
No vasoconstriction at low dose.
Reflex bradycardia is high dose.

5

What does dopamine do?

Dopamine receptors + B1 at low dose and A1 at high dose.
Least likely to cause tachycardia

6

Positive ionotropic drugs

Digitalis glycosides (Digoxin)
B1 Agonists

7

What is the mechanism of action for Digoxin?

Inhibition of pump, increase in Ca+, increase in contractility.

8

T/F Digoxin undergoes enterohepatic recycling

True.

Mainly renal secretion though

9

Toxicity of Digoxin

Very toxic, especially cardiotoxic - arrhythmias

10

What does acute intoxication of Digoxin cause vs a chronic intoxication?

Acute --> increase in potassium
Chronic --> decrease in potassium

11

What are our Vasodilators?

ACE inhibitors (enalopril), Hydralazine, and Nitrates (Prazosin)

12

What are our Inodilators?

Pimobendan ***** and Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

13

What is pimobendin used for?

Inodilation with CHF/DilatedCM.
*Not used with HCM

14

What is Carvedilol used for and how does it work?

Tx of CHF due to DilatedCM.

Nonselective, blocks B1, B2 and A1

15

Give me three reasons why nonselective beta blockers are better.

1. B2 can cause vasoconstriction
2. B2 can cause bronchoconstriction
3. B2 can cause hypoglycemia

16

Example of a loop diuretic

Furosemide

17

Example of a thiazide diuretic

Chlorothiazine

18

Example of a potassium-retaining diuretic

Spironolactone, triamterene

19

What are the four classes of antiarrythmic drugs?

Class I: Sodium channel blockers
a. prolonged action potential
b. shortened action potential
Class II: Beta Blockers
Class III: Potassium channel blockers
Class IV: Ca+ channel blockers

20

What is Quinidine used for?

Supraventricular fibrillation in horses
Class 1a - Na+ channel blocker

21

What is Procainamide used for?

Ventricular arrythmias
Class 1a - Na+ channel blockers

22

What is lidocaine used for?

Drug of choice to treat ventricular arrhythmias in dogs
Class 1b - Na+ channel blocker

23

What is phenytoin used for?

Digitalis-induced arrhythmias in dogs
Class 1b - Na+ channel blocker

24

What is propanolol used for?

Drug of choice (Beta blockers) for arrhythmias in cats
Class II - beta blockers

25

What is Bretylium used for?

Sympathetic vasodilator *toxic
Class III - K+ channel blocker

26

What are Verapamil and Diltiazem used for?

Myocardial hypertrophy
CLass IV - Ca++ channel blockers

27

What drugs treat atrial fibrillation?

Digoxin, Quinidine, Procainamide, Propanolol

28

Which drugs treat ventricular tachyarrhythmias??

Lidocaine, Procainamide, Quinidine, Phenytoin

29

Drugs of choice for tx of bradyarrhythmias?

Atropine and Isoproteranol

30

What is phenylephrine?

Selective alpha1 agonist (vasoconstrictor)

31

What are the sympathomimetics?

Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, PPA

32

What is phenoxybenzamine used for?

Vasodilator. Used to treat pheochromocytoma in hypertensive crisis

33

What is prazosin used for?

Selective Alpha1 blocker.
Vasodilator.

34

What do beta blockers end in.
What can they be used for regarding BV?

-lol
can block the RAAS system resulting in vasodilation

35

What is clonidine?

presynaptic Alpha2 agonist.
Vasodilator.

36

What is enalapril?

ACE inhibitor (also works on bradykinins)
Vasodilator.
DRUG OF CHOICE FOR HYPERTENSION IN DOGS

37

What is an Angiotensin II antagonist?

Losartan - antihypertenssive

38

What are your two direct acting vasodilators?

Hydralazine and Nitrates

39

What are your Ca2+ channel blockers that work at BV?

Verapamil
Diltiazem
Nifedipine
Amlodipine

40

Drug of choice to control hypertension in cats

Amlodipene

41

What do Ca2+ channel blockers do?

Vasodilation

42

What is the drug of choice for Myocardial hypertrophy in cats?

Diltiazem

43

Drug of choice for incomplete AV block

Atropine