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Flashcards in Antipsychotics Deck (60):

Paranoid schizophrenia

one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations, someone is trying to "get them" hurt them, steal from them


Disorganized schizophrenia

speech and behavior oriented


Catatonic schizophrenia

stupor, posturing, mutism, fetal position



absence of prominent sx but evidence of illness and functional impairment


Epidemiology of schizophrenia

prevalence remarkably similar among most cultures, most common in late adolescence or early adulthood, prevalence in males and females, lifetime prevalence of .6-1.9%


Etiology of schizophrenia

abnormalities in brain structure an dysfunction, changes not consistent among all individuals, multifactorial causes, neurodevelopmental model, utero disturbance, schizophrenic lesions, genetics


Positive symptoms

hallucinations, delusions, false beliefs, disorganized speech, cannot follow train of thought, psychomotor agitation, bizarre behavior


Negative symptoms

alogia-poverty of speech, brief responses, lack of thought; flattened affect, avolition- lack in self initiated goal-directed activity, socially isolated; anhedonia- lack of interest and motivation in other people/activities, attentional impairment- psychomotor slowing


Clinical course

onset (acute/gradual), acute stabilization, stabilization, maintenance


approaches to therapy

individual- supportive/ counseling, personal therapy, social skills therapies, rehab; group- interactive/ social, cognitive behavioral- cog behavior therapy, compliance therapy


MOA of treating schizo

blockade of DA receptors in mesolimbic area, D2 blockade- affinity for this receptor accounts for antipsychotic activity, D1 blockade- partially responsible for antipsychotic activity, responsible for EPS sx, 5HT blockade- improve neg sx and motor ADRs


Receptor activity

D1-D5: relief of psychosis, EPS; 5HT2: helps suppress DA activity, protect from EPS, wt gain; a1: orhto hypo, dizziness, M1: ACh ADRs, may protect against EPS, drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, H1: wt gain, drowsiness


Popular atypical antipsychotics

Quetiapine (Seroquel), Risperidone (Risperdal), ziprasidone (Geodon), Olanzapine (Zyprexa), Aripiprazole (Abilify)


Nausea and vomiting typical antipsychotics

Prochlorperazine (Compazine), Chlopromazine (Thorazine), Droperidol (Inapsine)


Antipsychotics typical

Haloperidol (Haldol), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Thiothixene (Navane), Loxapine (Loxitane), Perphenazine (Trilafon), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)


Typical antipsychotic pearls

all have equal efficacy, MOA- non-selective blockade of D2 receptors, effective at treating positive sx, major concern is EPS


Haloperidol (Haldol) dosing forms

Available IM or PO, IM-fast acting, also available as Depot shot, given once monthly, IVP is linked to increased risk of arrythmias


Haloperidol (Haldol) Pearls

drug of choice for ICU psychosis, used occasionally for CI for EtOH withdrawals, watch for QTc prolongation, higher potensity for EPS and anticholinergic ADRs, many DI


Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)

available PO or IM (IM used in peds for acute mania), off label- retractable hiccups (DOC), migraines, also used for N/V


Droperidol (Inapsine)

N/V migraines, major concern being proarrhythmic


ADRs or antipsychotics

sedation, ACh- dry mouth, constipation, blurry vision, antiadrenergic- orthstatic hypotension, wt gain, prolongation of QT interval, inc prolactin secretion (menstrual changes)



related to blockade of D1 receptor in substantia nigra, reversible if discovered early, associated w/ all typicals and some atypicals, includes- dystonia, pseudoparkinsonism, akathisia


Prolonged QT

typicals increase Qt interval, inc risk of torsades/ ventricular arrythmia, medications- typical antipsychotics, antibiotics, antifungals, low mag/K, CHF, renal/ hepatic d, CVA


Treatment of Acute dystonia

diphenhydramine (Benadryl), benztropine (Cogentin), must be given right away for quick reversal, usually IV, follow w/ PO agent x 1-2 wks to prevent recurrence, will worsen tardive dyskinsias


EPS- pseudoparkinsonism

20-40%, happens within several months, because of DA blockade causing relative imbalance of DA and ACh, increased risk w/ use of typicals and high risperidone high dose


Treatment ppseuodparkinsonism

decrease dose, change med, anticholinergics, amantadine to block DA


Tardive dyskinesia

occurs in 10-20% of pts, not EPS, associated w/ chronic use, often irreversible, high risk w/ typicals, elderly and women


Tardive dyskinesia presentation

largely orofacial, involuntary movements of face, neck, back, trunk and extremities, blinking, lip smacking, starts as tongue protrusion w/ appearance of lip smacking and difficulty speaking, chewing and swollowing


Tardive dyskinesia treatment

can be controlled if pt concentrates, limited to duration and dose of drug, often occurs when drug is decreased, no effective drug therapy, inc dose back to where it was, ACh make worse


Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

due to blockade of DA receptors, typicals have highest risk, Medical Emergency, 5-20% fatality,, mean age 40, higher risk in pts w/ mood disorders, lithium use, 1/3 cases develop subsequent NMS if re-chanllenged


NMS diagnosis

tx w/ AP w/in 7 days of onset, hyperthermia >100.4, muscle rigidity, 5 of following- changed in mental status, tachy myoglobinuria, inc WBC, tremor, tachypnea, incontinence, CPK inc, metabolic acidosis, labile BP



dec risk factors, early recognition, stop offending agent, supportive care, Dantrolene (Dantrium), amantadine, bromocriptine, lorazepam, may have to sedate, intubate and paralyze


Atypical antipsychotics

Clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, paloperidone, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone


Atypical antipsychiotics MOA

D2 and 5HT antagonists, 5HT is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, mesolimbic selectvely for D2 blockage, 5HT has minimal effects on prolactin, dec EPS, beneficial on neg sx


Clozapine (Clozaril)

first atypical, no EPS, TD or effect on prolactin, slow dose titration due to dec BP, strict monitoring for WBS


Clozapine (Clozaril) use

considered to be most efficacious, only for pts who have failed other agents, most potent for tx of pos and neg sx, good for pt w/ hx of suicide, substance abuse, last line, avoid in combo w/ benzos


Clozapine agranulocytosis

occurs in 3%, requires monitoring once weekly for 6 months, biweekly for next 6 months and once a month after, do not initiate if WBC 600 mg/d


Risperidone (Risperdal)

EPS dose related (>6mg/d) low dose good for geriatric agitation, not as effective for treating neg sx


Clozapine ADRs

hypersalivation, wt gain, dec bp, sig sedation, seizures if >600 mg/d


Risperidone dose and ADRs

.5 mg PO BID up to 3 mg PO BID, elevated LFTs, hyperprolactinemia, orthostasis, sexual dysfunction, sedation, wt gain,


Risperdal CONsta

IM injection q 2 weeks, must be overlapped w/ oral therapy upon initiation


Olanzapine (Zyprexa)

similar to Clozaril, no EPS, low TD, also used for acute agitation, bipolar maintenance, acute mania


Olanzapine ADRs and dose

20-60 mg PO QHS, significant sedation, wt gain, diabetes risk, low BP, no agranulocytosis, IM injection- short term treatment of acute agitation, at least as effective as Haldol, w/ quicker onset and lower incidence of dystonia and EPS


Quetiapine (Seroquel)

Low risk EPS, low TD, can see addiction


Quetiapine ADRs and dose

Sedation, mild hypo, wt gain, HA, cataracts in animals, 50-300 mg PO qHS, low doses used for anxiety, insomnia, depression


Ziprasidone (Geodon)

Oral IM, 20-40 mg PO BID, IM favored by many for acute mania, acute agitation IM q 2 hrs prn, ADRs-prolonged QT, mild sedatioin, minimal wt gain, EPS- low, TD low


Aripiprazole (Abilify) MOA

da modulator, only works when needs to, partially blocks D2 receptor when DA is inc, activate D2 receptor when DA is dec, 5HT2 antagonists improves efficacy for neg sx; often used in peds


Aropiprazole Adrs, dose

little wt gain, inc prolactin levels, possible diabetes, anxiety insomnia, HA, nausea, vomiting, low incidence EPS, no TD, no QT, least low BP; 5-15 mg PO Daily


Paliperidone (Invega)

active metabolite of risperidone, once daily, PO, less risk EPS and prolactin inc, niche- pts w/ liver disease, ADR- sedation, low BP


Iloperidone (Fanapt)

schizo only, Qt prolongation, avoid in arrhythmias


Luprasidone (Latuda)

schizo only, no Qt prolongation, $$$, not 1st line


Asenapine (Saphris)

D2 antagonist, 5 HT2A antagonist, SL only


Meatabolic syndrome

consider when starting therapy, do baseline screenings and regular monitoring, get good fam hx



taper over 1-2 weeks to prevent w/ drawal, Risperidone- overlap oral and IM by 3 weeks, haloperidol- overlap oral and IM by 1 month


Augmentation therapy for schizo

Benzos- lorazepam for agitaton and aggression, BB (aggression), mood stabilizers- improves aggitation, lithium, anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin, topiramate), SSRI w/ 1st generation OCD


General principals for APs

therapeutic trial for 6 weeks, (Clozapine needs 12), duration of tx- initial diagnosis (1-2 years) then reassess if relapse treat 5yrs-life, polypharm- consider clozapine before combo, not recommended unless failed others



#1 reason for relapse, cog fun may be lower, lack of understanding, stigma, cost is little concern


Summary of APs

considered 1st line, effectively treats all psychotic sx, enhanced tolerability, improved cog effects, better outcome in long-term, reduced rate of relapse and hospitalization


Summary of TPs

not usually 1st line, inc risk of EPS/ TD, not as effective in treating neg sx, not likely to improve cog func, no more effective in treating pos sx


Summary of compiance and duration of Tx

chronic disorder requiring life-long tx, tx after 1st episode continued for at least one year, nonadherence to meds is a complicated and signif issue, up to 70% of pts relapse w/in 1st 12 months if not taking maintenance meds