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Flashcards in Antivirals Deck (41):
1

mechanism of oseltamivir

influenza neuraminidase inhibitor which presents release of viral progeny from host cell

2

need to use oseltamivir in the first _____ hrs

48

3

mechanism of acyclovir

guanosine analogue that is phosphorylated by HSV/VZV thymidine kinase in infected cells --> inhibits viral DNA polymerase by chain termination

4

clinical use of acyclovir

HSV, VZV

5

valcyclovir

prodrug of acyclovir that has better oral bioavailability

6

famciclovir

form of acyclovir used for HZV (shingles)

7

SEs of acyclovir, valcyclovir, famciclovir

crystalline nephropathy and ARF if not adequately hydrated

8

mechanism of ganciclovir

guanosine analoque that is phosphorylated by CMV viral kinase in infected cells and inhibits viral DNA polymerase

9

clinical use of ganciclovir

CMV

10

valganciclovir

prodrug of ganciclovir with better bioavailability

11

SEs of ganciclovir, valganciclovir

BM suppression, nephrotoxicity

12

mechanism of foscarnet

pyrophosphate analogue that inhibits viral DNA/RNA polymerase as well as HIV reverse transcriptase, does not require phosphorylation for activation

13

clinical use of foscarnet

resistant HSV and CMV

14

SEs of foscarnet

nephrotoxicity --> electrolyte abnls --> seizures

15

mechanism of cidofovir

inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, does not require phosphorylation

16

clinical use of cidofovir

resistant HSV and CMV

17

SEs of cidofovir

nephrotoxicity (give with IV saline and probenecid)

18

mechanism of maraviroc

binds CCR5 on monocyte surface preventing interaction with viral gp120 --> prevents viral docking on host cells

19

mechanism of enfuvirtide

ginds gp41 on virus to prevent viral fusion with host cell membrane

20

abacavir, tenofovir, -ine antiHIV meds

NRTIs

21

mechanism of NRTIs (abacavir, tenofovir, -ine)

competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to RT and terminate DNA chain (lack 3' OH)

22

Which NRTI used for ppx and during pregnancy to prevent vertical transmission?

zidovudine

23

Which NRTI is associated with hypersensitivity? Via wihch HLA?

abacavir, HLA-B5701

24

Which NRTI associated with pancreatitis?

didanosine

25

SEs of NRTIs

BM suppression, peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis, lipodystrophy

26

Which NRTI associated with anemia?

zidovudine

27

mechanism of -vir- antiHIV drugs

NNRTIs - bind to and inhibit RT but not at active site

28

SEs of -vir- antiHIV drugs

SJS, hepatotoxicity

29

Which NNRTI is associated with vivid dreams and neuropsych symptoms?

efavirenze

30

mechanism of -navir drugs

protease inhibitors - prevents cleavage of HIV mRNA products into their functional parts, so prevents maturation of new virus progeny

31

SEs of -navir drugs

insulin resistance, lipodystrophy

32

mechanism of -tegravir drugs

reversible integrase inhibitors - prevents HIV genome integration into host cell chromosome

33

SEs of -tegravir drugs

myopathy

34

mechanism of interferons

glycoproteins normally synthesized by virus-infected cells to facilitate their destruction

35

clinical use of IFNa

HBV, HCV, condyloma acuminata, Kaposi sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia, RCC, melignant melanoma

36

clinical use of IFNb

MS

37

clinical use of IFNy

CGD

38

SEs of IFNs

flu-like symptoms, neutropenia, myopathy

39

mechanism of ribavirin in HCV

competitive inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase which inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides

40

mechanism of sofosbuvir

inhibits HCV RNA polymerase, chain termination

41

mechanism of simeprevir

HCV protease inhibitor