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Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders Deck (36):
1

List psychological symptoms of anxiety disorders

Worry/panic
Fear of going mad/dying
Concentration problems
Racing thoughts
Hypervigilance
Inability to relax

2

Anxiety is a normal state. True/False?

True
Causes issues when daily living is affected, however

3

List physical symptoms of anxiety disorders

Palpitations
Sweating
Tremor
Dizziness
Muscle tension
Numbness/tingling
Lump in throat, dysphagia
Chest pain/tightness
Nausea, vomiting, butterflies

4

What is globus hystericus?

Experience of not being able to swallow or eat, typically associated with anxiety

5

How does the amygdala aid in our aversive/defensive psychosystem?

Processes information about potential threat before we have even seen it

6

Describe Pavlovian conditioning

Associating innocuous stimulus with a particular response by presenting it in turn with another stimulus that provokes that particular response

7

Describe generalised anxiety disorder

Excessive persistent worrying that is not restricted to particular circumstances
(lasting a few months)

8

Describe panic disorder

Recurrent "panic attacks" (episodes of severe, unpredictable anxiety)

9

How long does a panic attack last to be classified as a panic attack?

Peaks within 10 minutes
Lasts up to 45 mins

10

Describe social anxiety disorder

Persistent unreasonable fear of being observed or evaluated negatively by other people

11

What is acrophobia?

Fear of heights

12

What is claustrophobia?

Fear of small spaces

13

What is belenophobia?

Fear of injections

14

What is post-traumatic stress disorder?

Anxiety developed on the back of exposure to traumatic situations

15

If someone predominately suffers from a traumatic past with flashbacks, what is the condition to look for?

PTSD

16

If someone predominately suffers from compulsions and persistent ideas, what is the condition to look for?

Obsessive compulsive disorder

17

If someone predominately suffers from uncontrollable worry about several things at once, what is the condition to look for?

Generalised anxiety disorder

18

If someone predominately suffers from fear of social scrutiny, what is the condition to look for?

Social phobia

19

What is the main aim of psychological/behavioural therapy when tackling anxiety disorders?

To understand conditioning and attempt to undo previous learning

20

What is the difference between graded exposure/sensitisation and flooding approach in psychological therapy for anxiety?

Graded: slow counter-conditioning involving build-up of coping mechanisms against feared stimuli
Flooding: full exposure to feared stimulus + staying with it until fear reduces

21

Describe the cognitive triangle

Thoughts create emotions
Emotions influence behaviour
Behaviour reinforces thoughts

22

List the medication used for PTSD

SSRI
Venlafaxine
Benzodiazepines
Anticonvulsants

23

List psychological therapy used for PTSD

CBT
EMDR

24

List the medication used for OCD

Serotonergic antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Anticonvulsants

25

List psychological therapy used for OCD

Exposure and response prevention
CBT

26

What is the first line treatment for OCD?

Exposure and response prevention

27

The obsessions in OCD are usually desired and associated with relief. True/False?

False
Usually unwanted, recurrent and intrusive
Distressing and associated with anxiety

28

The compulsions in OCD usually lead to reduced anxiety. True/False?

True
Resistance to compulsion leads to heightened anxiety

29

OCD is familial. True/False?

True

30

What is the mean age of onset of OCD?

20 years old

31

List some clinical features of OCD

Preoccupied with rules, lists, schedules
Perfectionism
Inflexibility of thought
Controlling

32

List 3 main proposed aetiology for OCD

Genetics (twins)
B-haemolytic Strep infection + autoantibodies to basal ganglia
Increased blood flow in orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus and cingulate cortex

33

Which psychiatric medication is usually used in OCD?

SSRI

34

List the 3 main domains of dysfunctional belief that occur in OCD

Overestimated/inflated sense of responsibility
Placing importance on controlling intrusive thoughts
Perfectionism + intolerance of uncertainty

35

What does exposure and response prevention in OCD involve?

Exposure to obsessive stimulus whilst employing strict prevention of compulsion, aiming to lessen distress associated with the stimulus

36

List 5 screening questions you may ask to probe about OCD

Do you wash/clean a lot?
Do you check things a lot?
Is there any thought that persistently bothers you?
Does it take you a long time to finish things?
Are you concerned with orderliness/symmetry?