Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders Deck (36):
List psychological symptoms of anxiety disorders
Fear of going mad/dying
Inability to relax
Anxiety is a normal state. True/False?
Causes issues when daily living is affected, however
List physical symptoms of anxiety disorders
Lump in throat, dysphagia
Nausea, vomiting, butterflies
What is globus hystericus?
Experience of not being able to swallow or eat, typically associated with anxiety
How does the amygdala aid in our aversive/defensive psychosystem?
Processes information about potential threat before we have even seen it
Describe Pavlovian conditioning
Associating innocuous stimulus with a particular response by presenting it in turn with another stimulus that provokes that particular response
Describe generalised anxiety disorder
Excessive persistent worrying that is not restricted to particular circumstances
(lasting a few months)
Describe panic disorder
Recurrent "panic attacks" (episodes of severe, unpredictable anxiety)
How long does a panic attack last to be classified as a panic attack?
Peaks within 10 minutes
Lasts up to 45 mins
Describe social anxiety disorder
Persistent unreasonable fear of being observed or evaluated negatively by other people
What is acrophobia?
Fear of heights
What is claustrophobia?
Fear of small spaces
What is belenophobia?
Fear of injections
What is post-traumatic stress disorder?
Anxiety developed on the back of exposure to traumatic situations
If someone predominately suffers from a traumatic past with flashbacks, what is the condition to look for?
If someone predominately suffers from compulsions and persistent ideas, what is the condition to look for?
Obsessive compulsive disorder
If someone predominately suffers from uncontrollable worry about several things at once, what is the condition to look for?
Generalised anxiety disorder
If someone predominately suffers from fear of social scrutiny, what is the condition to look for?
What is the main aim of psychological/behavioural therapy when tackling anxiety disorders?
To understand conditioning and attempt to undo previous learning
What is the difference between graded exposure/sensitisation and flooding approach in psychological therapy for anxiety?
Graded: slow counter-conditioning involving build-up of coping mechanisms against feared stimuli
Flooding: full exposure to feared stimulus + staying with it until fear reduces
Describe the cognitive triangle
Thoughts create emotions
Emotions influence behaviour
Behaviour reinforces thoughts
List the medication used for PTSD
List psychological therapy used for PTSD
List the medication used for OCD
List psychological therapy used for OCD
Exposure and response prevention
What is the first line treatment for OCD?
Exposure and response prevention
The obsessions in OCD are usually desired and associated with relief. True/False?
Usually unwanted, recurrent and intrusive
Distressing and associated with anxiety
The compulsions in OCD usually lead to reduced anxiety. True/False?
Resistance to compulsion leads to heightened anxiety
OCD is familial. True/False?
What is the mean age of onset of OCD?
20 years old
List some clinical features of OCD
Preoccupied with rules, lists, schedules
Inflexibility of thought
List 3 main proposed aetiology for OCD
B-haemolytic Strep infection + autoantibodies to basal ganglia
Increased blood flow in orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus and cingulate cortex
Which psychiatric medication is usually used in OCD?
List the 3 main domains of dysfunctional belief that occur in OCD
Overestimated/inflated sense of responsibility
Placing importance on controlling intrusive thoughts
Perfectionism + intolerance of uncertainty
What does exposure and response prevention in OCD involve?
Exposure to obsessive stimulus whilst employing strict prevention of compulsion, aiming to lessen distress associated with the stimulus