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Flashcards in Delirium and Memory Problems Deck (28):
1

What is the most common mental health problem in hospitalised patients above the age of 65?

Delirium

2

What are the main features of delirium?

Impaired consciousness
Disturbed cognition
Psychomotor disturbance
Emotional disturbance
Disturbed sleep-wake cycle

3

What might be seen clinically if a patient has impaired consciousness?

Clouding
Drowsiness
Stupor
Coma

4

What might be seen clinically if a patient has disturbed cognition?

Disorientated for time and place
Impaired memory and attention
Impaired thinking
Perceptual disturbance (hallucinations, delusions)

5

What are the 2 main psychomotor variants of delirium?

Hypoactive
Hyperactive
Can get mixed picture

6

What might be seen clinically if a patient has hypoactive delirium?

Confusion
Sedation
Depression (misdiagnosis)

7

What might be seen clinically if a patient has hyperactive delirium?

Agitation
Aggression
Hallucinations, delusions
Disorientation

8

Describe the course of delirium

Fluctuating, transient course
Rapid onset
Can last days to months depending on cause

9

What drugs can typically cause delirium?

Anticholinergic
Anticonvulsant
Parkinson drugs
Steroids
Opiates
Alcohol
Illicit drugs

10

Withdrawal from what substances can typically cause delirium?

Alcohol
Benzodiazepines
Barbiturates
Illicit drugs

11

List some metabolic abnormalities that can typically cause delirium

Hypoxia
Hypoglycaemia
Hypo/hyperthyroidism
Hypopituitarism

12

No identifiable cause excludes a diagnosis of delirium. True/False?

False

13

List the main risk factors for delirium

Elderly
Existing dementia
Sensory deficits
Perioperative
Immobility
Social isolation, stress

14

List the main formal cognitive tests that should be carried out for delirium

MOCA
MMSE
4AT

15

Sedating drugs can worsen delirium. True/False?

True

16

How is delirium due to alcohol withdrawal managed with medication?

Benzodiazepine

17

What is the general pharmacological management of delirium?

Antipsychotic - haloperidol

18

Who typically gets hyperactive delirium?

Elderly with recent injury e.g. hip fracture

19

What time of day is delirium typically worse?

Night

20

What is the shortest type of memory?

Sensory memory (less than 1s)

21

List the 2 main domains of long-term memory and their function

Explicit memory (conscious)
Implicit memory (unconscious)

22

Procedural memory is part of what - implicit or explicit memory? What kind of memory does it enable?

Implicit memory
Remembering skills and doing tasks

23

Declarative memory is part of what - implicit or explicit memory? What kind of memory does it enable?

Explicit memory
Remembering facts and events

24

What are the 2 main domains of declarative memory and their memory functions?

Episodic memory (events, experiences)
Semantic memory (facts, concepts)

25

What is anterograde amnesia?

Difficulty acquiring new material and remembering events since onset of illness/injury

26

What is retrograde amnesia?

Difficulty remembering information prior to onset of illness/injury

27

List some typical reports of memory problems

Forgetting a message
Losing track of conversation
Forgetting to do things
Inability to navigate to familiar places
Misplacing things
Struggling with names

28

What are the main domains assessed in cognitive screening?

Memory
Attention, concentration
Executive function
Visuo-spatial function
Language