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Flashcards in AP hormones Deck (29):
1

GH is secreted via ___ every ____

pulsatile pattern every 2 hrs

2

Direct GH effects are on

skeletal m., liver, bone, adipocytes

3

Indirect GH effects

via IGF-1 from the liver

4

GH actions

diabetogenic effect

1) increases insulin levels in blood
2) increases lipolysis of adipocytes
3) decreases blood glucose levels and utilization
4) causes insulin resistance

5

GH actions

protein synthesis and organ growth

increases protein synthesis and organ growth

1) uptake of a.a.
2) stimulates synthesis of DNA/RNA
3) mediated by somatomedins

6

GH actions

linear growth

increases linear growth, mediated by somatomedins

stimulates synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein

metabolism in cartilage forming cells and chondrocytes proliferation

7

acromegaly

excess GH

mostly due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma

effects are stage-dependent:

before adolescence = gigantism
after adolescence = periosteal growth plates keep growing, organ size increases, increases in extremities, coarsening of facial features, insulin resistance AND glucose intolerance

treated with somatostatin analogue = OCTREOTIDE, inhibits GH secretion

8

Prolactin in breast development

during adolescence stimulates mammary gland development

during pregnancy stimulates mammary alveoli development

note: it is an effect in combination with estrogen and progesteron

9

Prolactin in lactogenesis, two periods of development

Induces synthesis of lactin, casein, and lipids

during pregnancy, high levels of estrogen and progesterone keep prolactin levels low, when E & P drop precipitously after birth, prolactin levels increase sharply and begin lactation

10

Prolactin and ovulation

suppresses ovulation by inhibiting synthesis and secretion of GnRH

11

Galactorrhea

prolactin excess

12

prolactin and infertility

caused by excess prolactin

13

Destruction of the anterior lobe's effect on prolactin secretion

obliterated

14

Destruction of lactopherins on prolactin

obliterated

15

Destruction of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system on prolactin

prolactin excess- dopamine's NF effect is obliterated

16

Destruction of the hypothalamus' effect on prolactin

increases, no dopamine inhibiting signals

17

Bromocriptine

dopamine receptors that can be used to prolactin excess

18

panhypopituitarism

condition of inadequate or absent production of anterior pituitary hormones

caused by problems that affect pit. gland and either reduce or destroy its function OR reduce/destroy hypothalamic secretion of varying pit. releasing hormones

19

Causes of hypopituitarism

brain damage, pituitary tumors, non-pit tumors, infections
autoimmune disorders, genetic causes, idiopathic causes

20

pituitary tumors

most pituitary tumors are adenomas, occur spontaneously

functional and non functional

functional- release active hormone excessively
non-functional, releases nothing

21

Adenoma size

less than 1 cm = microadenoma
more than 1 cm = macroadenoma

22

multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

MEN 1

develop in 25% of patients with diagnosed pituitary adenomas

23

Neuropeptides

ADH and oxytocin

24

Precursor Neuropeptides

preprossophysin
Oxytocin: prepro-oxyphysin

25

the amino acid differences between oxytocin and ADH

ADH has a Phe and Arg
Oxytocin has a Ile and Leu

26

what is the major hormone concerned with regulating body fluid?

ADH

27

triggers of ADH secretion

1) decreased blood pressure sense by baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch --> sensory fibers to hypothalamus

2) decreased pressure sense by atrial stretch sensitive sensory neurons ----> hypothalamus

3) osmolarity above 280 mOsM @ hypothalamic osmoreceptors ---> INTERNEURONS to hypothalamus ---> hypothalamus

4) Angiotensin II

5) sympathetic stimulation

6) dehydration

that's three things: atrial stretch decrease, pressure decrease at baroreceptors, and osmolarity above 280 mOsm

28

which stimulation is ADH secretion most sensitive to?

osmolarity, a 1% change in osmolarity will cause ADH release

29

ADH receptors in the blood vessels and kidneys

V1 in vessels - vasoconstriction
V2 in kidneys - h20 retention