Zeidi: Hormone signaling table 7.1 , 7.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Zeidi: Hormone signaling table 7.1 , 7.2 Deck (17):
1

Lypophilic hormones, general

sterioids, thyroids, retinoids

2

Hydrophilic hormones, general

amino acid derived
polypeptides
"from lipid metabolism"

3

steroid hormones

lypophilic
progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, vitamine D

4

thyroid hormones

lypophilic

thyroxine

5

retinoids

lypophilic

retinol, retinoic

6

amino acid derived hormones

hydrophilic

histamine, serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine

7

polypeptides

hydrophilic

insulin, glucagon, cytokines, thyroid stimulating hormone

8

epinephrine (1) ---> ___ receptor + _____ G protein --->

beta receptor, Gs

relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, contraction of heart muscle, breakdown of triacylglycerols in adipose tissue
break down of glycogen in liver and muscle
glycolysis in muscle

epinephrine- non selective agonist of all adrenergic receptors (a1, a2, beta1, beta2, beta3)

undergoes multiple GPCR signaling pathways

9

histamine ---> ___receptor + ___ G protein --->

bronchioconstriction/symptomes of allergic reactions

Gs protein

H2 receptor

10

epinephrine/norepinephrine--->___ receptor + ____ G protein

constriction of smooth muscle

Gi alpha-adrenergic receptor

11

PIP2 system

receptor for vasopressin, epinephrine alpha1

Gq protein

leads to protein kinase C activation. this activates

PIP2---> IP3 and DAG ---> Ca efflux, calmodulin dependent activation kinase (cAM) and myosin light chain kinase (MLC)

also causes gene transcription


12

cAMP system

receptor for glucagon, epinephrine (beta, Gs), epinephrine (alpha 2, Gi)

13

RTK

insulin hormone

binds to its receptor RTK to regulate glucose metabolism

Ras-dependent signaling and RAS-independent signaling

14

primary structure of insulin

composed of an "A" and "B" chain


A = 21 aa
B = 20 aa

A chain and B chain connected by two disulfide bonds
A chain has one additional S-S chain on itself

15

insulin secondary and tertiary structure

6 subunits with a zinc in the middle. inactive form is stored as a hexamer in the body.

16

cAMP system leads to two diverging and then re-emerging downstream signaling events

Gs activates adenylate cyclase which then makes cAMP which then activates protein kinase A, which then phosphorylates CREB, which then translocate into the nucleus and activates genes

17

PIP2 system has what downstream signaling effects

Gq activates phospholipase C, which then cleaves PIP2 to produce diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP3

IP3 causes Ca release from ER/SR, to effects:

Ca activates calmodulin, which activates CaM kinase and myosin light chain

Protein kinase C translocates to membrane where DAG activatrs it