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Flashcards in Relationships Deck (43):
1

Ductus deferens exists ____

THE ABDOMEN POSTERIOR TO THE PERITONEAL CAVITY

external iliac artery and vein are posterior to the peritoneal cavity

2

External iliac artery becomes the femoral artery where?

once it crosses the inguinal ligament

3

cremaster arteries branch from

inferior epigastric a.

4

"entrance" of spermatic cord into canal

deep inguinal ring

5

Inguinal Canal Contents: male

contains

ductus deferens
ilioinguinal n.
genital branch of genitofermoral n.
testicular a.
pampiniform plexus of veins all surrounded by fascial layers

superficial inguinal ring: "exit" point of spermatic cord through external oblique muscle

6

Tests develop _______ (primarily or secondarily etc)

retroperitoneal from urogenital ridge of mesoderm in the UIPPER lumbar/lower thoracic region

then they migrate inferiorly

7

Gubernaculum

testes attached to gubernaculum which is attached inferiorly to the labial scrotal fold

it guides inferior migration

8

processus vaginalis

at around 7 months, the process vaginalis is a pouch of peritoneum which develops and pushes into labial scrotal swelling

9

what does the gubernaculum do?

pulls the testes into the developing scrotum THROUGH the inguinal canal

10

along with the testes, what are being pulled through the inguinal canal and into the early scrotum?

testes, ductus deferens, lymphatics, testicular vessels and nerves

11

What happens to the process vaginalis in boys?

it should close off and become an isolated pocket of peritoneum, the tunica vaginalis

12

Cryptorchidism

undescended testes
associated with prematurity
men with a history of cryptorchidism have a higher incidence of testicular cancer

13

Hydroceles can form in two places

the tunica vaginalis and the spermatic cord

14

hemorrhage often occurs in the

tunica vaginalis due to injury of the spermatic cord

15

hematocele =

blood in the tunica vaginalis

16

Descent of testes: the fascial layers involved

as testes descend they acquire four layers:

1. tunica vaginalis (partially covers tests)
2. external spermatic fascia
3. cremaster muscle/fascia
4. internal spermatic fascia

17

round ligament of the ovaries

upper gubernaculum

18

round ligament of the uterus

lower gubernaculum

19

inguinal content of a female

contains round ligament of uterus
ilioinguinal n.
genital branch of genitofemoral n

20

deep inguinal ring in women

"entrance" of round ligament of uterus into canal

21

superficial inguinal ring in women

"exit" of round ligament of uterus into canal

22

femoral hernias vs inguinal hernias

femoral hernias exit the abdomen through the femoral canal, inferior to the inguinal ligament

23

femoral hernias are more common in ___ than in ____

women than in men

24

how are inguinal hernias differentiated from femoral hernias?

their location to the epigastric arteries specifically the inferior epigastric a.)

25

Direct inguinal hernia will be ____ to the inferior epigastric artery

medial

the NECK of the hernial sac is medial to the inferior epigastric a.

26

what is the cause of a direct inguinal hernia

a weak conjoint tendon
more often bilateral than indirect
more common in older males

27

Lateral inguinal fossa =

deep inguinal ring

28

medial inguinal fossa =

hesselbach's triangle

29

The supravesicular fossa: relationships

medial to median umbilical fold

30

medial inguinal fossa

also known as hesselbach's triangle

lateral to the median umbilical fold but median to the medial umbilical fold,

31

lateral inguinal fossa

is lateral to the lateral umbilical fold, which carries the inferior epigastric artery and v

32

indirect inguinal hernia

the neck of the hernial sac lies lateral to the inferior epigastric artery

33

what does a direct inguinal hernia "push" through versus indirect inguinal hernia?

direct inguinal hernia "directly" pushes through the anterior abdominal wall through a weak inguinal triangle

indirect inguinal hernia push through the deep inguinal ring, through the canal, and exists the superficial ring

34

indirect inguinal hernia

pushes through deep inguinal ring and out the superficial inguinal ring

common in young children (males)
often due to incomplete closure of the processus vaginalis

most inguinal hernias are indirect

35

what causes an indirect inguinal hernia most often

incomplete closure of the processus vaginalis

36

most inguinal hernias are

indirect

37

gubernaculum in women becomes the

upper gubernaculum becomes the ligament of the ovary
lower gubernaculum becomes the round ligament of uterus

38

dartos muscle and fascia is derived from

scarpas layer

39

external spermatic fascia is derived from

external abdominal oblique

40

cremaster muscle is derived from

internal abdominal oblique

41

cremaster fascia is derived from

fascia of superficial AND deep surfaces of the internal oblique muscle

42

internal spermatic fascia is derived from

transversalis fascia

43

tunica vaginalis is derived from

peritoneum