Calcium Regulation Flashcards Preview

COM Anatomy, Biochemistry, OS > Calcium Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Calcium Regulation Deck (23):
1

Hypocalcemia signs

hyperreflexia, twitching, muscle cramps, tingling/numbness

2

Chvostek sign

facial m. twitches when facial nerve is tapped

3

Trousseau sign

carpopedal spasm upon inflation of a blood pressure cuff

4

Hypercalcemia signs

decreased QT interval, conspitation, lack of appetite, polyuria, polydipsia, muscle weakness, hyporeflexia, lethargy, coma

5

Vit D causes

Ca intake in the intestines by synthesizing calbinin transporter

Ca resorption from the bone

Ca reABsorption from the kidney

6

Vit D vs PTH in the kidneys

Vit D stimulates Ca AND phosphate reabsorption

PTH stimulates Ca reabsorption but inhibits phosphate reabsorption

7

Where are the major actions of 1,25-hydroxycholecalciferol?

in the intestines where it stimulates calcium absorption via upregulation of calbindin D28K that can bind four Ca ions

8

Vit D vs PTH on bone formation

Vit D upregulates RANKL expression
PTH upregulates RANKL and downregulates OPG (osteoprotegrin, inhibitor of RANK-RANKL interactions)

9

cAMP generated by PTH stimulation

excreted in urine, indicates high PTH stimulation

10

estradiol-17beta

stimulates calcium absorption from intestine

potent regulator of osteoblast/clast function by promoting osteblast survival and osteoclast destruction

11

adrenal glucocorticoids

promotes bone resorption and renal expulsion of calcium (calcium wasting)

high levels of cortisol leads to osteoporosis

12

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

increase in calcium reabsorption, increase in Vit D activation, decease in phosphate reabsorption

13

Secondayr Hyperparathyroidism

PTH is high because some issue is causing calcium levels to be low in the body

renal failure, vit. d deficiency etc


14

renal failure causes what parameters on PTH, Ca, P, and VD?

decrease in Ca, increased P, decreased VD, increase in PTH

15

Vit D deficiency causes what parameters on PTH, Ca, P, and VD?

increased PTH, decreased Ca, decreased P, decreased VD

16

Primary hyperparathoridism vs secondary

primary is when there is something wrong with the parathyroids like an adeoma, seconday include renal failure an vit D deficiencies

17

Hypoparathyroidism

causes

thyroid surgery
parathyroid surgery
autoimmune or congenital dysfunctions

18

Hypoparathyroidism

associated with

most ass. with decreased calcium

muscle spasm, cramping, numbness, etc

seizures, poor teeth, etc

treatment: oral Ca supplement and active form of vitamin D

19

main parameters of hypoparathyroidism

decrease in Ca, vit D, PTH but INCREASE IN P

20

Pathophysiology of PTH

albright hereditary osteodystrophy

pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a

Gs in bone and kidney is defective.

hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia

21

in which disorder is there a decrease in adenylyl cyclase activity

albright hereditary osteodystrophy

pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a

this is where the Gs protein doesnt activate for activate adenylyl cyclase activity

22

parameters of pseudohypoparathyroidism

increased PTH
increased P
decreased calcium
decreased Vit D

23

phenotype of psuedohypoparathyroidism

shortened stature, short neck, obesity, subcutaneous calcification, shortened metatarsals, metacarpals