Flashcards in Appendicitis Deck (6)
What is appendicitis.
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix (arises from the caecum).
What is the incidence of appendicitis.
Lifetime incidence = 7%.
It is rare in the very old and very young. (rare in very young because the appendix is cone shaped with a larger lumen)
It is most common in those aged 10-20.
What causes appendicitis.
It is due to a bacterial infection secondary to luminal obstruction (most often a faecalith or lymphoid hyperplasia)
This then leads to oedema, ischaemic necrosis and perforation.
What are the symptoms of appendicitis. (7)
Pain on coughing.
Foetor and/or flushing.
Classically a colicky central abdominal pain (inflammation of the appendix) followed by a localisation of pain to the RIF (inflammation of overlying peritoneum).
Nausea, vomiting and constipation/diarrhoea are variable.
What are the signs of appendicitis. (6)
Low grade pyrexia.
Patient tries to minimize movements.
Guarding and rebound/percussion tenderness.
Right sided tenderness on PR.
Rovsing's sign: RIF pain on palpation of LIF.