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Gastrointestinal > Gastroenteritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastroenteritis Deck (31):
1

What is gastroenteritis.

A viral or bacterial infection of the intestine.

2

What is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children.

Rotavirus.

3

What viruses can cause gastroenteritis. (3)

Rotavirus.
Norovirus.
Adenovirus.

4

What are the bacterial causes of gastroenteritis. (3)

Campylobacter.
Salmonella.
Shigella.

5

Is gastroenteritis contagious.

Yes, highly.

6

When is gastroenteritis most common.

In childhood.
It is one of the most common childhood diseases.

7

What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis. (3)

Acute onset of vomiting, followed by diarrhoea.
Fever.

8

What does blood in the stool indicate in a patient with gastroenteritis.

Bacterial infection.

9

What are the physical signs of a patient with diarrhoea. (2)

Signs of dehydration.
Abdominal discomfort.

10

What percentage water loss constitutes as mild dehydration in children.

11

What percentage water loss constitutes as moderate dehydration in children.

5-10%

12

What percentage of water loss constitutes as severe dehydration in children.

>10%

13

What are the clinical features of mild dehydration in children. (2)

Thirsty.
Dry mucous membranes.

14

What are the clinical features of moderate dehydration in children. (7)

Lethargic.
Reduced skin turgor.
Sunken eyes.
Sunken anterior fontanelle.
Tachycardia.
Reduced urine output.
Reduced tears.

15

What are the clinical features of severe dehydration in children. (5)

Drowsy.
Absent urine output.
Prolonged capillary refill time.
Weak pulse.
Low BP.
(signs of hypovolaemic shock).

16

What are the three mechanisms of bacterial gastroenteritis.

Mucosal adherence.
Mucosal invasion.
Toxin production.

17

Give examples of bacteria who use mucosal adherence to cause disease. (2)

E.Coli O104:H4. (Outbreak in Germany 2011).
E.Coli (EPEC).

18

Give examples of bacteria who use mucosal invasion to cause disease. (3)

E.coli (EIEC).
Shigella.
Campylobacter.

19

What are the two types of toxin produced by bacteria that can cause gastroenteritis.

Enterotoxins.
Cytotoxins.

20

What bacteria produce enterotoxins. (5)

E.Coli (ETEC) (diarrhoea).
Staph aureus (vomiting).
Cholera.
Bacillus cereus (vomiting).
Salmonella.

21

What is fried rice poisoning.

The toxin produced by B. cereus is present in cooked rice left standing overnight at room temperature.

22

Give an example of a bacteria producing cytotoxins.

E.Coli O157.

23

How do enterotoxins cause disease.

Induce excess fluid secretion into the bowel lumen, leading to water diarrhoea, without physically damaging the mucosa.

24

How do cytotoxins cause disease.

They damage the intestinal mucosa, and sometimes the vascular endothelium.

25

How is bacterial gastroenteritis divided clinically. (2)

Divided into:
Watery diarrhoea.
Dysentery.

26

What are the symptoms of salmonella. (4)

Nausea.
Cramping abdominal pain.
Diarrhoea.
Sometimes fever.

27

Food poisoning is a ______ illness in the UK>

Notifiable.

28

What is the main cause of gastroenteritis.

Contaminated water and food.

29

What is travellers' diarrhoea.

It is defined as the passage of three or more unformed stools per day in a resident of an industrialized country travelling in a developing nation.

30

What is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in the UK.

Norovirus.

31

What is the most common form of bacterial gastroenteritis in the UK.

Campylobacter jejuni.